Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New satellite shows precise extent of the Arctic sea ice loss

19.02.2013
Current measurements of the ESA ice thickness satellite CryoSat-2 have shown that the total mass of the Arctic sea ice was 36 per cent smaller last autumn than during the same period in the years 2003 to 2008.
Five years ago the autumn ice volumes averaged 11900 km3. But in the second quarter of 2012 they had declined to 7600 km3. This conclusion is reached by an international research team after comparing the CryoSat data of the past two years with measurements of a former NASA satellite and with the results of sea ice investigations of the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research.

The study is published in the online issue of the scientific journal Geophysical Research Letters and for the first time shows how precisely scientists can observe the development of the Arctic sea ice using CryoSat-2.

When the Arctic sea ice melted so far in the late summer of last year that a new negative record was set up, sea ice physicist Stefan Hendricks could not have been closer to the course of events – in the Central Arctic. He and colleagues set out with helicopters from the research vessel POLARSTERN to survey the thickness of the remaining ice with a sea ice sensor; and this over an area of more than 3500 kilometres. Stefan Hendricks and colleagues use such datasets to check the measurement method and the measurement results of the CryoSat-2 ice satellite which the ESA (European Space Agency) launched into space on 8 April 2010.
The satellite has a radar altimeter which measures the height of the ice surface above the sea beneath. CryoSat-2 circles the Earth on an orbit which brings it closer to the North Pole than any of its predecessors. Its 1000 metre wide radar beam travels almost once over the entire Arctic within one month, collects high resolution data and, unlike its predecessor ICESat, also penetrates cloud cover. This is exciting technology which is helping scientists to learn more: “We now know that the CryoSat measurement method functions well. With the assistance of the satellite we have been able for the first time to prepare a virtually complete ice thickness map of the Arctic”, says sea ice physicist and co-author Stefan Hendricks from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Association for Polar and Marine Research (AWI). AWI sea ice experts have been measuring the thickness of the sea ice since 2003 in an ESA project.

The CryoSat data from the past two years prove that the ice cover in the Arctic was some 36 per cent smaller in the autumn of 2012 and around 9 per cent smaller in the winter than in the same two periods in the years from 2003 to 2008. Whilst the autumn volume of the ice averaged 11900 km3 up to five years ago, it shrank in the fourth quarter of 2012 to 7600 km3 – representing a decrease of 4300 km3. By contrast, the winter volume dropped from 16300 km3 (2003-2008) to 14800 km3 (2010-2012), a loss totalling 1500 km3.
The scientists primarily attribute these losses to the decline in the three to four metre thick, multiyear ice. “CryoSat data prove that this thick sea ice in a region to the north of Greenland, for example, at the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and also to the north east of Spitsbergen has disappeared”, says co-author Dr. Katharine Giles from University College London.

However, these new findings and the reliability of the CryoSat data are just the first step for the sea ice physicist Stefan Hendricks. “Measuring the sea ice via satellite has the great advantage that we are no longer dependent on the seasons and can also capture data in the winter. It was impossible to do this from an aircraft due to the darkness of Arctic winter”, explains Stefan Hendricks.

EM-Bird for ice thickness measurements in operation

Photo: Stefan Hendricks, Alfred-Wegener-Institut

A constant measurement of the sea ice is urgently necessary, however. “We have been working towards this goal for years because only once we know how thick the winter ice in the entire Arctic is, can more accurate short term predictions about the development of the ice cover in the subsequent summer be made”, says Stefan Hendricks.

His personal goal is to soon be in a position to publish an AWI Arctic map with the current sea ice thickness every month. Stefan Hendricks: “Every scientist working on this subject will then be able to use this data simply and easily.”

Notes for Editors:

The study appeared in the online issue of Geophysical Research Letters under the following title:
Seymour W. Laxon, Katharine A. Giles, Andy L. Ridout, Duncan J. Wingham, Rosemary Willatt, Robert Cullen, Ron Kwok, Axel Schweiger, Jinlun Zhang, Christian Haas, Stefan Hendricks, Richard Krishfield, Nathan Kurtz, Sinead Farrell, Malcolm Davidson (2013): CryoSat-2 estimates of Arctic sea ice thickness and volume, Geophysical Research Letters, online publication on 28 January 2013.

Link to the website of the German CryoSat project office: http://www.cryosat.de/

Printable photos of the sea-ice measurement campaign of the Alfred Wegener Institute used to check the CryoSat-2 measurements may be seen in the online edition of this press release at http://www.awi.de/en/news/press_releases/.

Your contact partners at the Alfred Wegener Institute are Stefan Hendricks (Tel: +49 471 4831-1874, e-mail: Stefan.Hendricks(at)awi.de) and Sina Löschke in the Communications Department (Tel: +49 471 4831-2008, e-mail: Sina.Loeschke(at)awi.de).

The Alfred Wegener Institute conducts research in the Arctic and Antarctic and in the high and mid-latitude oceans. The Institute coordinates German polar research and provides important infrastructure such as the research ice breaker Polarstern and stations in the Arctic and Antarctic to the international scientific world. The Alfred Wegener Institute is one of the 18 research centres of the Helmholtz Association, the largest scientific organisation in Germany.

Ralf Röchert | idw
Further information:
http://www.cryosat.de/
http://www.awi.de/en/news/press_releases/

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht Predicting unpredictability: Information theory offers new way to read ice cores
07.12.2016 | Santa Fe Institute

nachricht Sea ice hit record lows in November
07.12.2016 | University of Colorado at Boulder

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Closing the carbon loop

08.12.2016 | Life Sciences

Applicability of dynamic facilitation theory to binary hard disk systems

08.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

Scientists track chemical and structural evolution of catalytic nanoparticles in 3-D

08.12.2016 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>