Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers explain odd oxygen bonding under pressure

06.08.2008
Oxygen, the third most abundant element in the cosmos and essential to life on Earth, changes its forms dramatically under pressure transforming to a solid with spectacular colors. Eventually it becomes metallic and a superconductor.

The underlying mechanism for these remarkable phenomena has been fascinating to scientists for decades; especially the origin of the recently discovered molecular cluster (O2)4 in the dense solid, red oxygen phase.

Researchers from the Carnegie Institution's Geophysical Laboratory (GL), with colleagues* found that under pressure the molecules interact through their outermost electron clouds or "orbitals." Using a newly developed synchrotron technique at HPCAT, the lab's synchrotron facility at Argonne National Laboratory, the researchers found that the interaction of these half-filled orbitals increases with increasing pressure, changing the location of the orbitals, and bringing the four oxygen molecules together to form the (O2)4 clusters at a pressure about 10,000 times the atmospheric pressure (10 gigapascals). The study is published the week of August 4, in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

"The molecular interaction in oxygen revealed by this study is due to the unique fact that oxygen's outmost orbital is half-filled with two unpaired electrons," explained Yue Meng, lead author of the study at HPCAT. "As the molecules are squeezed into smaller volumes at high pressure, electrons in the orbital inevitably move about, trying to pair with electrons in the neighboring molecules."

To study the dense solid phases of oxygen, the researchers developed the high-pressure inelastic X-ray scattering technique at the Advanced Photon Source, a high-brilliance synchrotron X-ray facility at Argonne. The technique uses the synchrotron X-ray beam to probe the electronic bonding change as a diamond anvil cell subjects a sample to many hundreds of thousands of atmospheres. The researchers combined their experimental results with theoretical calculations by collaborators to further reveal that there is an increasing interactions between the neighboring (O2)4 clusters in the red-colored oxygen, providing a mechanism for forming new bonding between the oxygen clusters in still higher pressure phases.

"The behavior of oxygen at high pressure demonstrates one of the most profound effects of pressure on matter, which transforms the colorless air we breath into colorful dense solids," continued Meng. "The drastic change in the appearance of this familiar gas is due to the bonding changes in oxygen induced by high pressure."

"This is the first demonstration of how new tools can be used to probe the subtle interactions between atoms and molecules that lead to the formation of entirely new crystal structures," said Russell J. Hemley, the GL's director. "These new structures may give rise to entirely new electronic, magnetic, and other physical properties that could lead to new technologies."

The formation of molecular clusters through the anti-bonding orbital called ?* is well known in organic chemistry and the electron delocalization in cluster orbitals provides several potentials for technical applications. "It is exciting to find that oxygen forms molecular clusters under high pressure through similar mechanism and this opens a possibility for new forms of materials at high pressure with potential for technical applications," Meng concluded.

Yue Meng | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.hpcat.aps.anl.gov
http://www.CIW.edu

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht Novel method for investigating pore geometry in rocks
17.06.2018 | Kyushu University, I2CNER

nachricht Decades of satellite monitoring reveal Antarctic ice loss
14.06.2018 | University of Maryland

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: AchemAsia 2019 will take place in Shanghai

Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.

Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...

Im Focus: First real-time test of Li-Fi utilization for the industrial Internet of Things

The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.

Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.

Im Focus: Sharp images with flexible fibers

An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.

Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...

Im Focus: Photoexcited graphene puzzle solved

A boost for graphene-based light detectors

Light detection and control lies at the heart of many modern device applications, such as smartphone cameras. Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for...

Im Focus: Water is not the same as water

Water molecules exist in two different forms with almost identical physical properties. For the first time, researchers have succeeded in separating the two forms to show that they can exhibit different chemical reactivities. These results were reported by researchers from the University of Basel and their colleagues in Hamburg in the scientific journal Nature Communications.

From a chemical perspective, water is a molecule in which a single oxygen atom is linked to two hydrogen atoms. It is less well known that water exists in two...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Munich conference on asteroid detection, tracking and defense

13.06.2018 | Event News

2nd International Baltic Earth Conference in Denmark: “The Baltic Sea region in Transition”

08.06.2018 | Event News

ISEKI_Food 2018: Conference with Holistic View of Food Production

05.06.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Scientists predict a new superhard material with unique properties

18.06.2018 | Materials Sciences

Squeezing light at the nanoscale

18.06.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

A sprinkle of platinum nanoparticles onto graphene makes brain probes more sensitive

15.06.2018 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>