New tool for monitoring nuclear tests:
Corresponding author: Stephen J. Arrowsmith of Los Alamos National Laboratory.
California’s Hayward Fault System Examined:
For Northern California, the Hayward Fault System is considered to pose the greatest risk for producing a major quake in the next 30 years. It is necessary for seismologists to understand the structure of the East Bay and the mechanics of its motion in order to anticipate what will happen during an earthquake along the Hayward Fault. Scientists from USGS-Menlo Park created the most detailed 3-D model to date of the upper crust in the East Bay and geometry of the Hayward Fault. The model reveals the motion of small Hayward Fault earthquakes to be very similar to the over-all motion of the fault, with no complexities that could bound or restrict the rupture zones of large earthquakes. Seismic hazard assessments should therefore plan for earthquakes anywhere along the fault. Further, although the Hayward and Calaveras Faults are not connected at the surface, the model revealed a smooth connection between the Hayward and Calaveras Faults at depths greater than about 3 miles. Therefore, seismic hazard assessments should assume scenario earthquakes that span parts of both faults.
Authors: Jeanne L. Hardebeck, Andrew J. Michael, and Thomas M. Brocher of USGS-Menlo Park, California.
Long-term seismic behavior of an active fault: what can we learn from a 12,000-yr-long paleo-seismic record?
Daëron and colleagues from Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France) present results of the first paleoseismic study of the Yammoûneh fault, which is the main on-land segment of the Levant fault system (or "Dead Sea fault") in Lebanon, a region tectonically similar to the "Big Bend" in the San Andreas fault. This area offers a long historic record that spans more than 2000 years of activity. Researchers sought to answer several questions about the frequency and magnitude of historical quakes and to understand the mechanisms at work that govern the faults. They present evidence that the latest event was the great A.D. 1202 earthquake and resolve unanswered questions about the frequency of seismic activity. Large earthquakes on different fault segments appear to cluster temporally within a couple of centuries, followed by millennial spans of relative quiescence. Authors conclude that regional risk assessment needs to prepare for the possibility of a large (M>7) earthquake striking this densely populated region in the coming century.
Corresponding author: Mathieu Daëron, currently at Caltech in Pasadena, CA
Nan Broadbent | EurekAlert!
Stagnation in the South Pacific Explains Natural CO2 Fluctuations
23.02.2018 | Carl von Ossietzky-Universität Oldenburg
First evidence of surprising ocean warming around Galápagos corals
22.02.2018 | University of Arizona
A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. This has made it possible to observe the interaction of multiple photons in a single such pulse with electrons in the inner orbital shell of an atom.
In order to observe the ultrafast electron motion in the inner shells of atoms with short light pulses, the pulses must not only be ultrashort, but very...
A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal.
By measuring the highly unusual atomic trajectories under extreme electromagnetic transients, the MPSD group could reconstruct how rigid the atomic bonds are...
Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can’t manage. But how do you test a quantum computer to...
For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.
In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...
Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale
Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...
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23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy