The advantage of using existing acoustic noise is that signals only need to be recorded and not produced. Researchers at TU Delft and the Colorado School of Mines have generalised the underlying theory and found that acoustic noise can be used for a much wider scale of physical applications than was previously thought possible. The researchers will publish their findings in Physical Review Letters on 8 December 2006.
As acoustic noise travels through a medium, such as the earth's crust, it compiles information. In recent years it was discovered that only a few simple processes (cross-correlation) were needed to extract a meaningful signal from acoustic noise. Geophysicists Kees Wapenaar and Evert Slob of TU Delft, and Roel Snieder of the Colorado School of Mines, have now developed a unified theory that extends the extraction of impulse responses from background noise for more general situations. This theory includes electromagnetic noise in conducting media, acoustic noise in flowing and viscous media, and even diffusive transport phenomena. Moreover, the theory predicts that coupled processes, such as seismo-electric effect and the associated electrokinetic reflections, can also be retrieved from the background noise measurements.
It appears that background noise contains more information than one could possibly dream of several years ago. The theory can be used for 'remote sensing without a source' for a wide range of physical applications that include the determination of parameters of flowing media, viscous media, as well as the electrokinetic coupling parameters of porous reservoir rock. In partnership with Shell, the researchers have since created seismic reflection data from background noise that was recorded in a desert in the Middle East. Moreover, they expect their research methods to be applied in, for example, the LOFAR-project.
Roy Meijer | alfa
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21.09.2017 | Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.
Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
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