Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Strong Winds in Upper Stratosphere Trigger Increase in Ozone-destroying Gases

29.09.2006
Winds circling high above the Arctic have a much greater impact on upper stratospheric ozone levels than scientists had previously thought, according to a new report.

In March 2006, the winds allowed near-record amounts of ozone- destroying gases, collectively known as nitrogen oxides or NOx, to descend some 50 kilometers [30 miles] from the mesosphere to the top of Earth's stratosphere.

NOx, is a generic term for a group of highly reactive gases, all of which contain nitrogen and oxygen in varying amounts, especially nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide. Because NOx destroys ozone, which heats up the stratosphere by absorbing ultraviolet radiation, the naturally occurring gases could trigger atmospheric changes that could have unanticipated climate consequences, according to Cora Randall of the University of Colorado at Boulder, lead author of the study.

In February 2006, winds in the polar upper stratospheric vortex, a massive winter low-pressure system that confines air over the Arctic region, sped up to rival the strongest such winds on record, said Randall. The only time more nitrogen oxides were observed in the upper stratosphere was in the winter of 2003-2004, when huge solar storms bombarded the region with energetic particles, triggering up to a 60 percent reduction in ozone molecules, said Randall.

"We knew strong winds would lead to more NOx in the stratosphere if there were solar storms, but seeing that much NOx come down into the stratosphere when the Sun was essentially quiet was amazing,” Randall said. Her paper on the subject was published 27 September in Geophysical Research Letters, published by the American Geophysical Union. Researchers from the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada, and the University of Michigan, as well as the University of Colorado participated in the study.

The upper stratosphere lies several kilometers [miles] higher than the ozone hole of the lower stratosphere, which is caused by man- made gases, including chlorine and bromine, which gobble up ozone molecules. Because there is significantly less ozone in the upper stratosphere, the ozone-destroying nitrogen oxide gases are unlikely to cause immediate health threats, such as increases in skin cancer, Randall said.

The destructive NOx gases, created above the stratosphere when sunlight or energetic particles break apart oxygen and nitrogen molecules, appear to be important players in controlling the temperature of Earth's middle atmosphere, according to Randall. "If human-induced climate change leads to changes in the strength of the polar vortex, which is what scientists predict, we'll likely see changes in the amount of NOx descending into the stratosphere,” she said. "If that happens, more stratospheric NOx might become the rule rather than the exception."

"The atmosphere is part of a coupled system, and what affects one layer of the atmosphere can influence other layers in surprising ways," Randall said. "We will only be able to predict and understand the consequences of human activities if we study the entire system as a whole, and not just in parts."

The 2006 increases of NOx in the upper stratosphere occurred over the Arctic and the northern areas of North America and Europe, according to the paper's authors. The research team used data from Canadian and United States satellites, including the Canadian Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment.

The work was funded by NASA and the Canadian Space Agency.

Harvey Leifert | AGU
Further information:
http://www.agu.org

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A Map of the Cell’s Power Station

18.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form

18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers printed graphene-like materials with inkjet

18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>