Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Decompression-driven crystallization warms pathway for volcanic eruptions

11.09.2006
Mount St. Helens data will improve volcanic monitoring worldwide

The reason may be counter-intuitive, but the more magma crystallizes, the hotter it gets and the more likely a volcano will erupt, according to a team of scientists that includes a University of Oregon geologist. The knowledge likely will aid monitoring of conditions at Mount St. Helens and other volcanic hot spots around the world.

Reporting in the Sept. 7 issue of the journal Nature, the researchers show that rapid crystallization of magma within one to two kilometers of the surface (about one-half to one mile) causes magma to heat up to as much as 100 degrees Celsius (212 degrees Fahrenheit).

"While this sort of heating has been expected in theory, we are the first to show that we can measure it," said Katharine Cashman, a professor of geologic sciences at the University of Oregon. "These results have important consequences for models of magma ascent beneath volcanoes, as increasing the melt temperatures causes the melt viscosity to decrease so that it can flow more easily, like heating up a jar of honey to allow the honey to flow out of the jar."

Explosive volcanic eruptions are fueled by the escape of volcanic gases from magma stored in underground reservoirs and pipes several kilometers below the surface. Predicting such eruptions requires a real-time knowledge of just where the magma is at any one time and what it is doing.

"This work is now being used to gauge the direction of the volcanic activity currently happening at Mount St. Helens and could be applied to any active volcano for which monitoring and petrological records are available," said Jon Blundy, professor of earth sciences at the University of Bristol (United Kingdom), in a news release.

Cashman and Blundy have now collaborated since 1998, when Blundy took a sabbatical at the University of Oregon, on four published studies on Mount St. Helens, located 53 miles northeast of Portland, Ore. Cashman has studied the volcano and similar ones elsewhere for more than a decade.

The latest study was a follow-up to one Blundy and Cashman published in Geology last year (October 2005), in which they used small pockets of melt that get trapped in crystals as they expand to demonstrate that the crystals grow by decompression as magma rises toward the surface. That paper also showed that these crystals grow rapidly, in months rather than years. The new study refined their conclusions in Geology by using experimental calibrations to show the rapid heating as magma nears the surface.

"This may sound counter-intuitive, but think about the need to add heat to something to melt it," Cashman said.

In this follow-up study to last year's report, the researchers were able to reconstruct changes in pressure, temperature and crystallization that occur in magma before an eruption. They showed that as pressure decreases, crystallinity increases; the more magma crystallizes, the hotter it gets.

The finding that a drop in pressure rather than a loss of heat to surrounding rocks, as previously thought, means that there are more possibilities for eruption dynamics, the researchers concluded.

If ascending magma is able to heat itself up simply by crystallizing, they report, it may provide an important trigger for eruption without the need to invoke an extraneous heat source such as a shot of hotter magma from deep below the surface. The new findings also suggest the possibility that volcanic crystals grow in response to decompression by heating on an unexpectedly short timescale of several years, a period during which volcanoes can be more effectively monitored.

Jim Barlow | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.uoregon.edu

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht In times of climate change: What a lake’s colour can tell about its condition
21.09.2017 | Leibniz-Institut für Gewässerökologie und Binnenfischerei (IGB)

nachricht Did marine sponges trigger the ‘Cambrian explosion’ through ‘ecosystem engineering’?
21.09.2017 | Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet

Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.

A warming planet

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

Im Focus: Ultrafast snapshots of relaxing electrons in solids

Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!

When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...

Im Focus: Quantum Sensors Decipher Magnetic Ordering in a New Semiconducting Material

For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.

Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Rainbow colors reveal cell history: Uncovering β-cell heterogeneity

22.09.2017 | Life Sciences

Penn first in world to treat patient with new radiation technology

22.09.2017 | Medical Engineering

Calculating quietness

22.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>