Having access to near-continuous satellite data of these regions over long periods of time is important for scientists to identify and analyse long-term climatic trends and changes. ESA will provide current and historical data, dating back 15 years, from its ERS-1, ERS-2 and Envisat satellites as well as data collected from a number of non-ESA satellites.
International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 aims to enhance international collaboration in polar region research and monitoring, link researchers across different fields to address questions and issues lying beyond the scope of individual disciplines, ensure data collected under the IPY are made available in an open and timely manner and intensify the recovery of relevant historical data and ensure these also are made openly available.
Legacies of past International Polar YearsIPY has been celebrated three times over the last 125 years – in 1882-1883, 1932-1933 and 1957-1958. Scientific and exploring programmes borne out of each IPY have led to scientific advancements, new discoveries and an increased understanding of many geophysical phenomena that influence the Earth’s global systems.
Dr. Carlson foresees several legacies from this IPY. "We conduct this IPY with a sense of urgency, driven by a sense of change. One legacy, driven by that sense of urgency, will occur as researchers shorten the time it takes to incorporate new data, such as satellite data, directly into predictive models. Another legacy will come from the unique scientific breadth of this IPY, where social, biological and physical scientists will learn, in some cases for the first time, how to combine their ideas and tools to gain a comprehensive understanding of the polar regions."
Data OpportunityESA will provide access to Earth observation data free of charge to selected projects covering the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Data, as well as the exploitation of historical archives, from the following missions will be made available: ESA’s Envisat, ERS 1 and -2, GOCE and SMOS (when available) and Third Party Missions including Japan’s ALOS and the French Space Agency’s (CNES) Spot-4.
ESA is now accepting proposals from users wishing to obtain the satellite data for scientific research and application development in support of the IPY 2007-2008. The deadline for submission is 15 September 2006 with data delivery beginning in March 2007.
IPY is co-sponsored by the International Council for Science (ICSU) and the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and is endorsed by 31 nations. The idea of IPY was inspired by the Austrian explorer Karl Weyprecht, who was a scientist and co-commander of the Austro-Hungarian Polar Expedition of 1872-1874.
Mariangela D'Acunto | EurekAlert!
In times of climate change: What a lake’s colour can tell about its condition
21.09.2017 | Leibniz-Institut für Gewässerökologie und Binnenfischerei (IGB)
Did marine sponges trigger the ‘Cambrian explosion’ through ‘ecosystem engineering’?
21.09.2017 | Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.
Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
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