Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have found evidence in eastern North America that the snow is melting and running off into rivers earlier than it did in the first half of the 20th century. According to a USGS study published in the most recent issue of Geophysical Research Letters, winter-spring flows in many rivers in the northern United States and Canada are occurring earlier by 5-10 days.
"We studied rural, unregulated rivers with more than 50 years of USGS and Environment Canada river flow data," explained Glenn Hodgkins, lead author and hydrologist at the USGS Maine Water Science Center. "Some 179 rivers in eastern North America met the criteria of our study with 147 in the United States from the Dakotas to New England and 32 in Canada from Manitoba to Newfoundland. These rivers are sensitive to changes in precipitation and temperature," added Robert Dudley, study co-author.
The scientists compared the dates by which half of the total volume of winter-spring runoff has flowed past a river gaging station in each year. Most rivers north of 44° north latitude--roughly from southern Minnesota and Michigan through northern New York and southern Maine--showed earlier winter-spring streamflows. In contrast, many stations south of this line in Iowa, southern Wisconsin, and northern Illinois had later streamflows. Changes in average monthly flows support these results--there are high percentages of rivers north of 44° north latitude with increases in January, February, and March streamflows and relatively high percentages of rivers with decreases in May and June.
Glenn Hodgkins | EurekAlert!
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For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
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