Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The dynamics of rocky inclines

22.11.2005


It is common to see banks or inclines on the roadside or at the side of railway cuttings. They are formed when a side of a mountain or other earth feature is cut through for the construction of various infrastructure. As they are unstable zones, many problems are created and, in the case of the Basque Country, the problems are aggravated by a number of factors: the complex orographic terrain, the high rainfall and the area being abundant in sedimentary material.



Risk and consequences

Instabilities arise on rocky banks due to the geomechanical features of the rocky mass, because of the state of conservation of the slope itself, and due to the conditions of water penetration.


Once the movement of rocks has started, the key factor in the movement is the inclination of the bank. Also, the size of the incline influences the probability of rock falls. Why? Because the higher and longer the slope, the greater the rock mass under risk of rock fall and, in the case of a landslide occurring, greater will be the damage done.

It should be taken into account that some locations have the material of the banks pointing directly towards the road or railway, due to the fact that it had this orientation originally within the rock mass. In other cases, the rocks are pointing in another direction and so do not present such a risk and any rock fall will probably not reach the road or the rail tracks.

Corrective measures

The aim of all these geotechnic measures is to identify, control and correct elements that might be unstable. To do this it is necessary to establish protocols or programmes of action. By means of these programmes, the improvements that may be obtained with corrective measures are evaluated and the problems registered thus resolved.

Concretely, the group of hydrogeology-geotechnics at the University of the Basque Country has developed a programme based on 10 parameters: classification of rocks (classification undertaken for the rock masses in the Basque Country), orientation of cracks, hydraulic conditions, facility of meteorisation of the rocks, history of the incline or bank, volume of the unstable blocks/mass, the height of the bank, the likelihood of the rocks reaching the road, the distance of vision vs. the distance of reaction and the importance of the road. Through these parameters, the stability of the rocky bank and the damage from a rock fall estimated. Thus, 8 classes of rock are differentiated and information provided on the features and behaviour of the bank.

Finally, corrective measures are proposed for each type of rock. Amongst these measures is the use of steel bars as tensors, covering the slope with concrete, placing dynamic nets to catch the rocks, etc. In the last analysis, the aim of all these studies is to propose suitable corrective measures for each case and, thus, to minimise risks.

Garazi Andonegi | alfa
Further information:
http://www.basqueresearch.com

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht A promising target in the quest for a 1-million-year-old Antarctic ice core
24.05.2018 | University of Washington

nachricht Tropical Peat Swamps: Restoration of Endangered Carbon Reservoirs
24.05.2018 | Leibniz-Zentrum für Marine Tropenforschung (ZMT)

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Powerful IT security for the car of the future – research alliance develops new approaches

The more electronics steer, accelerate and brake cars, the more important it is to protect them against cyber-attacks. That is why 15 partners from industry and academia will work together over the next three years on new approaches to IT security in self-driving cars. The joint project goes by the name Security For Connected, Autonomous Cars (SecForCARs) and has funding of €7.2 million from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Infineon is leading the project.

Vehicles already offer diverse communication interfaces and more and more automated functions, such as distance and lane-keeping assist systems. At the same...

Im Focus: Molecular switch will facilitate the development of pioneering electro-optical devices

A research team led by physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has developed molecular nanoswitches that can be toggled between two structurally different states using an applied voltage. They can serve as the basis for a pioneering class of devices that could replace silicon-based components with organic molecules.

The development of new electronic technologies drives the incessant reduction of functional component sizes. In the context of an international collaborative...

Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

In focus: Climate adapted plants

25.05.2018 | Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

In focus: Climate adapted plants

25.05.2018 | Event News

Flow probes from the 3D printer

25.05.2018 | Machine Engineering

Less is more? Gene switch for healthy aging found

25.05.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>