Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

’Satellites and the city’

21.07.2005


NASA satellites improve understanding of urban effects on climate and weather

Just how does society’s desire to live in densely populated areas have the potential to change our Earth’s climate? According to a new paper, satellites can help us answer that question.

"More and more people live in cities. This means that cities will grow rapidly over the next several decades. Evidence continues to mount that cities affect the climate," said J. Marshall Shepherd, Deputy Project Scientist of the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. and co-author of a paper that appeared in the May 2005 issue of Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.



"Recent U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) and Weather Research Program (USWRP) documents highlight the need for improved understanding of how cities affect weather and climate, yet current climate models don’t represent urban areas very well," said Shepherd. "Our research suggests that, using satellite data and enhanced models, we will be able to answer several critical questions about how urbanization may impact climate change 10, 25 or even 100 years from now."

Shepherd and co-author Menglin Jin, a research scientist at the University of Maryland-College Park, suggest that satellite-observed urban information is extremely useful for advancing our ability to simulate urban effects in climate models. They go on further to propose that satellite data is the only feasible way to represent the expanse of global urban surfaces and related changes to the Earth’s surface, vegetation and aerosols.

According to the United Nations Population Division, urban regions only cover 0.2 percent of Earth’s land surface, but contain nearly half of the world’s population. By 2025, 60 percent of the world’s population will live in cities and urban landscapes will likely expand well beyond 0.2 percent. However, to date, global climate models (GCMs) and regional climate models (RCMs) do not reflect urban landscapes, according to the paper’s authors.

GCMs and RCMs are models, or complex mathematical computer simulations of the atmosphere and the oceans, and are the primary tool for predicting the response of the climate to increases in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. GCMs and RCMs combine a model of land surfaces with an atmosphere model through exchanges of heat fluxes, water and momentum.

What is it about urban areas like New York City, Paris, Tokyo or Sydney that the paper’s authors believe would lend value to climate models, and subsequently, to climate predictions? According to scientific studies presented at a recent American Geophysical Union session organized by the authors, "the construction of buildings, parking lots, houses, urban areas dramatically change the smoothness of a surface, thermal conductivity (the ability of a material to transmit heat), hydraulic conductivity (measure of the ability of soil to transmit water), albedo (reflectivity off of Earth’s surfaces) emissivity (the ratio of radiation emitted by a body or surface) and vegetation cover."

As such, urban landscapes change the typical physical processes of land surfaces, and importantly, also add new and unique characteristics to land surfaces and atmosphere.

Structures like the Empire State Building in New York City can change the basic wind flow in and around cities that can alter air quality, temperature, cloud distribution and precipitation patterns. It is increasingly evident that such atmospheric changes near cities can be captured by NASA satellites such as Aqua, Landsat, Terra, and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). These same urban structures also alter the land surface and atmospheric conditions as measured by satellite instruments such as Aqua’s and Terra’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS).

The paper’s authors believe that the story of satellites and the city deserves further review, and can be of great value to our understanding of how our global inclination to be urban dwellers can also change the climate of our home planet.

"Our goal with this paper and with our research is to raise attention to the need for including urban lands into climate models, and for using satellite observations in simulating those urban landscapes in climate models," said Jin. "It’s important for everyone to know that urbanization affects things we all care about like the amount and frequency of rainfall or how hot or cold the outdoor temperature may be."

Rob Gutro | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.nasa.gov/goddard

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Cholesterol-lowering drugs may fight infectious disease

22.08.2017 | Health and Medicine

Meter-sized single-crystal graphene growth becomes possible

22.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

Repairing damaged hearts with self-healing heart cells

22.08.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>