In order to understand the dynamics of glaciers and ice sheets as well as their interactions with climate, we need fundamental detailed knowledge about the way in which glaciers and ice sheets move. The way water is routed through glaciers is highly significant for their movement since the water pressure at the base of the glacier directly influences its speed. The water pressure acts as a hydraulic jack and pushes that glacier forwards during high water pressure events. This may increase the velocity of the ice with a factor of two or even more.
Therefore, to understand how the speed of a glacier varies both in the long and the short term, it is important to have firm understanding of how water from rain and melting on the glacier’s surface reaches the glacier bed. Stockholm University runs a research station in Tarfala valley in the Kebnekaise mountains of northern Sweden.
Here on the 3 km2 glacier Storglaciären, a joint American-Swedish research team has investigated how water is transported within the glacier to better understand old established theories on water flow in glaciers. By drilling 48 vertical holes totaling 3.9 km into the glacier, mapping these with submersible video cameras and by imaging traces of cracks in the glacier by ground-penetrating radar surveys on the glacier surface, the team has established a detailed picture of how water circulates through the glacier.
Agneta Paulsson | alfa
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Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
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Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
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A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
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