Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists studying desert air to understand weather and climate

19.08.2004




NASA, Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Scripps Institution of Oceanography scientists have assembled in the Arabian Desert to study tiny airborne particles called aerosols and their effect on weather and climate. The scientists are collaborating with researchers from the United Arab Emirates Department of Water Resources Studies and 20 other U.S., European and South African research laboratories to decipher the complex processes controlling the area’s climate.

The United Arab Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2) mission runs from August 5 through September 30. Scientists are using satellites, computer models and ground stations to understand the unique "mixing bowl" of desert dust, smoke and other aerosols created by the complex atmospheric circulations.

"The combination of man-made emissions, smoke from the Indian subcontinent and desert dust combine in the air to make a unique aerosol laboratory," said Hal Maring of NASA Headquarters, Washington.



"We have the most intensely monitored remote-sensing aerosol network ever assembled, including two radiation and aerosol super sites, 10 satellite instruments, six computer models, a research aircraft and a research vessel," said Jeff Reid, mission scientist from NRL in Monterey, Calif. "There are 70 scientists participating, 40 of them working in the field, from over a dozen institutions, including the large South African and Colorado-based National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) weather modification teams," he added.

Aerosols have always been an interesting puzzle piece in learning how climate works. Lighter aerosols reflect heat and sunlight and have cooling properties. Darker aerosols absorb heat and light, warming the atmosphere. UAE2’s mission will measure aerosol properties, where aerosols move, and whether they add or remove warmth. Scientists also hope to model and explain complicated weather patterns in the coastal regions of the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

By obtaining more accurate data about aerosols and their behavior, scientists will improve computer climate models and predictions of climate behavior in response to changes in aerosol concentrations. To accomplish this task, NASA will start from space, using primarily its Terra and Aqua satellites, but other satellites as well.

These satellite data will be compared to ground-based remote sensing measurements of mineral dust and pollutant aerosols gathered by 15 Aerosol Robotic Network instruments over land and water, NRL’s Mobile Atmospheric Aerosol and Radiation Characterization Observatory (MAARCO) and NASA’s Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer.

Navy researchers will use the aircraft, MAARCO and satellite data to evaluate the Navy’s global and regional weather and aerosol-transport computer models. The Arabian Gulf region presents a challenge to meteorologists trying to simulate weather with computer models, because sea-surface and land temperatures vary to extremes and the topography varies dramatically. There are also strong small to medium-sized weather changes ranging from one storm cloud to a large cluster of thunderstorms the size of Connecticut.

Using MAARCO, scientists from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Poland’s Warsaw University will study the impact of aerosols and clouds on incoming solar radiation and the hydrologic cycle and energy balance in this mostly rain-free area.

"This project will complement Scripps’ effort to understand climate change in this region of the world," said Piotr Flatau, a research scientist at Scripps, who will be working with Krzysztof Markowicz and others from Warsaw University during the project. "I know the Arabian Sea from research cruises during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), but the UAE2 experiment brings a new set of challenges. While INDOEX took place in a mostly monsoonal region, the UAE is dry and hot. The temperatures are reaching 40 degrees Celsius (104° F) there right now and we do not expect much rain," Flatau said.

"The UAE Office of His Highness the President, Department of Water Resource Studies (DWRS), is providing extensive logistical support, including access to five weather radars and 50 surface stations," said Lt. Col. Mangoosh, Office of the President of the United Arab Emirates.

Krishna Ramanujan | NASA
Further information:
http://uae2.gsfc.nasa.gov
http://www.dwrs.gov.ae
http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

What the world's tiniest 'monster truck' reveals

23.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Treating arthritis with algae

23.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Witnessing turbulent motion in the atmosphere of a distant star

23.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>