Glaciers reached Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in the most recent ice age about 20,000 years ago. But much harsher ice ages hit the Earth in an ancient geological interval known as "the Cryogenian Period" between 750 and 600 million years ago. A team of geologists from China and the United States now report evidence of at least three ice ages during that ancient time.
Shown is a glacial cobble from the Nantuo Formation, Guizhou Province, South China. Grooved scratch marks on this cobble were formed when it was frozen in a moving glacier and ground against the underlying pavement of the glacial valley.
"The Cryogenian Period is characterized by some of the worst glaciations in earth history. But the available age constraints are so few that geoscientists dont even know how many glaciations occurred in the Cryogenian. Now, we believe we have evidence that there were at least three Cryogenian glaciations, and there may have been more," says Shuhai Xiao of Virginia Techs Department of Geosciences.
Chuanming Zhou, a Virginia Tech geosciences post-doctoral associate, along with Xiao, Robert Tucker and Zhanxiong Peng of the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Washington University of St. Louis, and Xunlai Yuan and Zhe Chen of Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology, are co-authors of "New constraints on the ages of Neoproterozoic glaciations in South China," the cover story in the May 2004 issue Geology, the journal of the Geological Society of America.
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The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
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The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
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Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
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The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
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