A research team from the IRD "Tropical Palaeo-environments and climatic variability" research unit and their American co-workers (1) have succeeded in retracing over a 23 000 year period the history of a coral reef of the Island of Urelapa, in Vanuatu. This fossil reef bears the record of the longest continuous growth – 17 000 years – ever studied by scientists (2). For the first time, researchers have at their disposal uninterrupted records of environmental data on the whole of the deglaciation period, which began around 20 000 years ago (3). A major finding is that the Urelapa reef changed growth strategy, in response to environmental changes which occurred during the post-glacial sea-level rise. More broadly, this research has brought new key information which contributes to a better understanding of the influence of climatic change on the coral reefs of the Pacific, which are the most complex ecosystems of the marine environment.
In the course of the last glacial maximum, around 20 000 years B.P., sea levels reached their lowest point, at 120 to 130 metres below the present level. The subsequent ice-cap melting induced a gradual rise of the oceans up to current levels. In the tropical regions, these large-amplitude fluctuations have contributed to the formation and growth of coral reefs.
IRD researchers at Noumea, in conjunction with scientists from three American universities (1), have just reconstructed the history of the oldest post-glacial reef ever studied in the Pacific which has grown under the influence of sea-level oscillations. This reef is situated at Urelapa, off the island of Espiritu Santo in the Vanuatu group in the South-West Pacific. It shows the longest recorded continuous growth, at 17 000 years, between 23 000 and 6 000 years B.P.. (2). The scientists thus have at their disposal environmental data (sea-levels, quantity of nutrients, temperatures, and so on) covering the entire period of deglaciation (3).
Bénédicte Robert | EurekAlert!
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Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of light metals.
Scientists at the University of Stuttgart have now developed two new process variants that will considerably expand the areas of application for friction stir welding.
Technologie-Lizenz-Büro (TLB) GmbH supports the University of Stuttgart in patenting and marketing its innovations.
Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of...
Optical quantum computers can revolutionize computer technology. A team of researchers led by scientists from Münster University and KIT now succeeded in putting a quantum optical experimental set-up onto a chip. In doing so, they have met one of the requirements for making it possible to use photonic circuits for optical quantum computers.
Optical quantum computers are what people are pinning their hopes on for tomorrow’s computer technology – whether for tap-proof data encryption, ultrafast...
The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.
“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...
With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.
Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...
For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.
Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...
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