Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Dinosaur Cannibal Unearthed in Madagascar

03.04.2003


Artistic rendering of the theropod dinosaur Majungatholus atopus feeding from the remins of a conspecific
Credit: Artwork by Demetrios M. Vital

The exotic island of Madagascar, situated off the southeast coast of Africa, was a dangerous place to live 65 million to 70 million years ago. Crocodiles swarmed in the rivers, and a 30-foot-long, meat-eating dinosaur named Majungatholus atopus stalked the plains. Like most carnivorous dinosaurs, Majungatholus had teeth perfectly suited for ripping into flesh. But what was on the menu? Until now, this question has remained a mystery.

In a report published in the April 3 issue of the Journal Nature, Raymond Rogers, a geologist from Macalester College in St. Paul, Minnesota, along with colleagues David Krause of the State University of New York at Stony Brook and Kristina Curry Rogers of the Science Museum of Minnesota, provide an answer. Majungatholus was a cannibal-it regularly dined upon members of its own species. It also fed upon the remains of other dinosaurs, including gigantic long-necked sauropods called titanosaurs.

"This research greatly expands our understanding of how dinosaur species related to each other in the context of their environment, and also serves as a way of increasing public awareness of and appreciation for the earth sciences," said Rich Lane, program director in the National Science Foundation (NSF)’s division of earth sciences, which funded the research.

In their report, Rogers and colleagues document the first clear cut evidence for cannibalism among dinosaurs. The clues come in the form of distinct tooth marks (like those a dog might leave on a bone today) on Majungatholus bones, and they unquestionably point the finger at Majungatholus itself.

According to Rogers, the fossil evidence is compelling and unprecedented. "We have examined literally thousands of dinosaur bones from sites around the world, and we’ve never seen fossil material quite like this."

Fossilized bones from two Majungatholus individuals show indication of intense feeding, with distinctive sets of tooth marks that match the size and spacing of teeth in Majungatholus’ jaws, and smaller grooves that match the sharp serrations on Majungatholus’ blade-like teeth.

Rogers and his colleagues are careful to rule out other potential suspects who lived alongside Majungatholus. "We examined the jaws and teeth of other known meat-eaters in the Malagasy fauna, including a much smaller carnivorous dinosaur called Masiakasaurus knopfleri, and two large crocodiles" stated Rogers, but only Majungatholus possessed the jaws and teeth capable of inflicting the damage the scientists saw.

"Despite the bad press that human cannibals receive, this discovery of cannibalism in a theropod dinosaur should come as no big surprise," said Rogers. Cannibalism as a feeding strategy is very common in the animal kingdom today." Animals ranging from insects to lions regularly consume members of their own species, and they do so for a variety of ecologic and evolutionary reasons, scientists believe.

With regard to dinosaurs, the only other example of a cannibal is the small Triassic theropod Coelophysis bauri, which is said to have the remains of juvenile individuals preserved in its stomach region. However, a recent reappraisal of the evidence suggests that claims of cannibalistic feeding by Coelophysis may be unsubstantiated, said Rogers. Not so in the case of Majungatholus. "We have the smoking gun in the form of diagnostic tooth marks, and we can definitely rule out all of the other carnivores known to have been on the scene," said Rogers. "These tooth-marked bones are a ’snapshot’ of a day in the life-and death-of Majungatholus."

Unfortunately, concluded Rogers, "we don’t know whether Majungatholus killed both of the individuals in our sample, or opportunistically scavenged their remains." However, there is a good indication that Majungatholus lived during hard times.

In the Late Cretaceous Madagascar was characterized by a seasonal and semi-arid climate, much like that of Madagascar today. The ancient environment saw dramatic fluctuations in essential resources such as food and water, which apparently led to mass die-offs among animal populations. According to Rogers, Majungatholus may have scavenged from the carcasses of its own dead in order to deal with dire nutritional needs in times of environmental stress. "It appears as though Majungatholus atopus exploited all available resources during stressful episodes, even if it meant dining on members of its own species."

Cheryl Dybas | NSF
Further information:
http://www.nsf.gov
http://www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht Small- and mid-sized cities particularly vulnerable
29.09.2016 | Universität Stuttgart

nachricht Tracking the amount of sea ice from the Greenland ice sheet
28.09.2016 | Ca' Foscari University of Venice

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New welding process joins dissimilar sheets better

Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of light metals.
Scientists at the University of Stuttgart have now developed two new process variants that will considerably expand the areas of application for friction stir welding.
Technologie-Lizenz-Büro (TLB) GmbH supports the University of Stuttgart in patenting and marketing its innovations.

Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of...

Im Focus: First quantum photonic circuit with electrically driven light source

Optical quantum computers can revolutionize computer technology. A team of researchers led by scientists from Münster University and KIT now succeeded in putting a quantum optical experimental set-up onto a chip. In doing so, they have met one of the requirements for making it possible to use photonic circuits for optical quantum computers.

Optical quantum computers are what people are pinning their hopes on for tomorrow’s computer technology – whether for tap-proof data encryption, ultrafast...

Im Focus: OLED microdisplays in data glasses for improved human-machine interaction

The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.

“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...

Im Focus: Artificial Intelligence Helps in the Discovery of New Materials

With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...

Im Focus: Complex hardmetal tools out of the 3D printer

For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.

Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

HLF: From an experiment to an establishment

29.09.2016 | Event News

European Health Forum Gastein 2016 kicks off today

28.09.2016 | Event News

Laser use for neurosurgery and biofabrication - LaserForum 2016 focuses on medical technology

27.09.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

New Multiferroic Materials from Building Blocks

29.09.2016 | Materials Sciences

Silicon Fluorescent Material Developed Enabling Observations under a Bright “Biological Optical Window”

29.09.2016 | Materials Sciences

X-shape Bio-inspired Structures

29.09.2016 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>