A recent NASA-funded study has linked the 1991 eruption of the Mount Pinatubo to a strengthening of a climate pattern called the Arctic Oscillation. For two years following the volcanic eruption, the Arctic Oscillation caused winter warming over land areas in the high and middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, despite a cooling effect from volcanic particles that blocked sunlight.
The Arctic Oscillation (AO)
A positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation (top) is associated with strengthening of winds circulating counterclockwise around the North Pole north of 55°N, that is, roughly in line with Moscow, Belfast, and Ketchikan, Alaska. In winter these winds pull more warm air from oceans to continents causing winter warming, and like a top spinning very fast, they hold a tight pattern over the North Pole and keep frigid air from moving south. Cool winds sweep across eastern Canada while North Atlantic storms bring rain and mild temperatures to Northern Europe. Drought conditions prevail over the Mediterranean region.
During the negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation (bottom), cool continental air plunges into the Midwestern United States and Western Europe while storms bring rainfall to the Mediterranean region. Credit: David W. J. Thompson, J. M. Wallace
Eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, July 1991
Strong explosive volcanic eruptions, like ones of the Mt. Pinatubo in Philippines in June 1991, inject millions of ton of sulfur dioxide gas at the altitudes of about 15 miles where it interacts with water vapor producing a volcanic aerosol layer that consists of tiny droplets of highly concentrated sulfuric acid.
As a result of the Pinatubo eruption, globally averaged surface temperature decreased by about 0.3 Kelvin (0.3 Celsius) for two years after the eruption and the temperature in the tropical lower stratosphere increased by about 2-3 Kelvin (2-3 Celsius). The tropospheric response over most land areas in the Northern Hemisphere is characterized by summer cooling and winter warming. Credit: U.S. Geological Survey, J.N. Marso, July 1991
One mission of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise, which funded this research, is to better understand how the Earth system responds to human and naturally-induced changes, such as large volcanic eruptions.
“This study clarifies the effect of strong volcanic eruptions on climate, important by itself, and helps to better predict possible weather and short-term climate variations after strong volcanic eruptions,” said Georgiy Stenchikov, a researcher at Rutgers University’s Department of Environmental Sciences, New Brunswick, N.J., and lead author on a paper that appeared in a recent issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research.
Krishna Ramanujan | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
NASA examines Peru's deadly rainfall
24.03.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Steep rise of the Bernese Alps
24.03.2017 | Universität Bern
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
24.03.2017 | Materials Sciences
24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy