Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New map shows human ’footprint’ covers most of the Earth

23.10.2002


But scientists say human effects can be a positive, not negative, factor for life on earth



Human beings now directly influence more than three quarters of the earth’s landmass, according to a state-of-the-art map of the world produced by a team of scientists from the New York-based Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and Columbia University’s Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN). Published in the latest issue of the scientific journal BioScience, the map should serve as a wake-up call that humans are stewards of the natural world, whether we like it or not – something that should be viewed as an opportunity, the authors say.

The map adds together influences from population density, access from roads and waterways, electrical power infrastructure, and land transformation such as urbanization and agricultural use. It reveals that 83 percent of the land’s surface is under human influence, while a staggering 98 percent of the area where it is possible to grow rice, wheat or maize is directly influenced by human beings. At the same time, wide swaths of land still remain wild, including: the northern forests of Alaska, Canada and Russia; the high plateaus of Tibet and Mongolia; and much of the Amazon River Basin.


According to WCS and CIESIN, wild areas can still be found in all the ecosystems on the land’s surface, though some on a much smaller scale. Called the "last of the wild," the authors look at these less-influenced areas as opportunities for conservation of wild places all over the world.

"The map of the human footprint is a clear-eyed view of our influence on the Earth. It provides a way to find opportunities to save wildlife and wild lands in pristine areas, and also to understand how conservation in wilderness, countryside, suburbs, and cities are all related," said the paper’s lead author Dr. Eric Sanderson, a landscape ecologist with WCS. "The map should be looked at as a blueprint for individuals, institutions and governments to understand our current influence on the planet and figure out ways to lessen the negative impacts, while enhancing the positive ways that people interact with the environment."

The authors of the study also gave numerical scores to various areas around the world; the lower the number, the lesser the degree of human influence. Many of the world’s largest cities, including New York, Beijing, Calcutta, etc. received the highest scores. But the authors of the study say that even among areas under heavier human influence, there are still opportunities for wildlife, pointing to examples like the progress made in restoring the Hudson River, and in India, where tigers share their landscape with one billion people.

"This map can be used to set specific targets for action," according to data specialist Marc Levy of CIESIN. "What can’t be measured can’t be managed--with this map we have an important management tool, a basis for scientific measurement of anthropogenic influences on nature."

"The two lessons of the human footprint are this: we need to conserve the last of the wild, because they are places where all the parts of nature are more likely to remain, and where conflicts with human infrastructure are least; and we need to transform the human footprint, so nature can still be nurtured everywhere, including in more heavily influenced areas. We can do both and nature is often resilient, if given half a chance," said Sanderson.

This study also vividly illustrates the application of geographic information systems (GIS) technology as a way of integrating diverse geographic data to reveal new patterns in a persuasive way. This work was only possible because of increased access to global datasets on roads, land use, and human population density in recent years.

This work was supported by grants from the Prospect Hill Foundation, the Center for Environmental Research and Conservation (CERC) at Columbia University, and in-kind support from the ESRI Conservation Program.

Stephen Sautner | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wcs.org/humanfootprint
http://www.ciesin.columbia.edu/wild_areas
http://www.wcs.org/

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht What makes corals sick?
11.12.2017 | Leibniz-Zentrum für Marine Tropenforschung (ZMT)

nachricht Mars’ atmosphere well protected from the solar wind
08.12.2017 | Schwedischer Forschungsrat - The Swedish Research Council

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Scientists channel graphene to understand filtration and ion transport into cells

Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.

To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...

Im Focus: Towards data storage at the single molecule level

The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.

Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...

Im Focus: Successful Mechanical Testing of Nanowires

With innovative experiments, researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrums Geesthacht and the Technical University Hamburg unravel why tiny metallic structures are extremely strong

Light-weight and simultaneously strong – porous metallic nanomaterials promise interesting applications as, for instance, for future aeroplanes with enhanced...

Im Focus: Virtual Reality for Bacteria

An interdisciplinary group of researchers interfaced individual bacteria with a computer to build a hybrid bio-digital circuit - Study published in Nature Communications

Scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have managed to control the behavior of individual bacteria by connecting them to a...

Im Focus: A space-time sensor for light-matter interactions

Physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (run jointly by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics) have developed an attosecond electron microscope that allows them to visualize the dispersion of light in time and space, and observe the motions of electrons in atoms.

The most basic of all physical interactions in nature is that between light and matter. This interaction takes place in attosecond times (i.e. billionths of a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

AKL’18: The opportunities and challenges of digitalization in the laser industry

07.12.2017 | Event News

Blockchain is becoming more important in the energy market

05.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New research identifies how 3-D printed metals can be both strong and ductile

11.12.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Scientists channel graphene to understand filtration and ion transport into cells

11.12.2017 | Materials Sciences

What makes corals sick?

11.12.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>