Meteorologists can no longer view the Earth as an isolated system. Both long-term climate changes and day-to-day weather show links with the Sun`s activity. Scientists therefore study the nature of those links intensely. With data from ESA`s spaceprobes SOHO, Cluster, and Ulysses, we now have the information we need to solve the mystery of how the Sun`s activity affects the climate here on Earth. This study is the first step in setting up a new type of weather forecast - the space-weather bulletin.
For the Sun to affect the Earth`s weather, the Sun`s behaviour must vary in some way. At visible wavelengths, however, the Sun is remarkably constant. Satellite data show that there are dramatic changes going on beyond this narrow range. For example, the Sun emits a `wind` of charged particles and we know that this wind is variable. The ultraviolet radiation released by the Sun also varies. Studying the interaction between solar variability and the Earth environment is a science known as `space weather`.
This solar variability is caused by the ever-changing magnetic behaviour of the Sun. The Sun`s magnetic behaviour changes on an 11-year cycle, passing from `solar minimum` to `solar maximum`. At the peak of this cycle, one of which occurred last year, the solar wind is stormy because explosions on the Sun`s surface catapult particles outwards with an increased intensity. The energy released during such explosions can be up to one thousand million megatonnes (or 66 thousand million times the energy released by the Hiroshima atomic bomb). Such events are also the source of the variable ultraviolet emissions.
ESA`s solar fleet is observing these phenomena very carefully and from several points in space. The joint ESA/NASA spaceprobe, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), is constantly watching the Sun, monitoring this activity. The solar wind gusts buffet the magnetic field of the Earth. ESA`s quartet of satellites, Cluster, monitors these effects close to Earth while Ulysses patrols the Sun in a tilted orbit, well away from the plane of the planets, to get a more `global` view of the solar wind.
Alexi Glover | alfa
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Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of light metals.
Scientists at the University of Stuttgart have now developed two new process variants that will considerably expand the areas of application for friction stir welding.
Technologie-Lizenz-Büro (TLB) GmbH supports the University of Stuttgart in patenting and marketing its innovations.
Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of...
Optical quantum computers can revolutionize computer technology. A team of researchers led by scientists from Münster University and KIT now succeeded in putting a quantum optical experimental set-up onto a chip. In doing so, they have met one of the requirements for making it possible to use photonic circuits for optical quantum computers.
Optical quantum computers are what people are pinning their hopes on for tomorrow’s computer technology – whether for tap-proof data encryption, ultrafast...
The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.
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With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.
Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...
For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.
Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...
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