University of Pennsylvania Museum archaeologists have discovered a 3700-year-old "magical" birth brick inside the palatial residence of a Middle Kingdom mayors house just outside Abydos, in southern Egypt. The colorfully decorated mud birth brick--the first ever found--is one of a pair that would have been used to support a womans feet while squatting during actual childbirth.
The birth brick, which measures 14 by 7 inches, was discovered during summer 2001 excavations directed by Dr. Josef Wegner, Associate Curator, Egyptian section of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, and Assistant Professor, Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, University of Pennsylvania, part of a large-scale, ongoing joint effort of the combined University of Pennsylvania-Yale University-Institute of Fine Arts/NYU Expedition to Abydos. The ancient brick still preserves colorful painted scenes and figures: clearly visible is a mother holding her newborn baby, as well as magical images of gods whose role was to protect and aid the mother and baby at the time of birth.
According to Dr. Wegner, Egyptologists have long known, from ancient texts, that the standard form of childbirth in ancient Egypt was for the woman to deliver the baby while squatting on two mud bricks. The upper surface of the birth brick discovered at Abydos, unlike the bottom and sides, is crumbled away. "It is quite possible," Dr Wegner notes, "that the damage to the top of the brick --and another like it that has not been preserved-- was caused by its use to support a womans feet in childbirth for a long period of time and during multiple deliveries."
And whose birth brick was this? Dr. Wegner and the Penn excavation team have a pretty good idea of who may have used the birth brick: a noblewoman and princess named Renseneb. Back in the summer of 1999, the Penn team discovered (from seal impressions with hieroglyphic texts and other objects) that the grandiose building they were excavating was, in fact, the mayors residence--the first ancient Egyptian mayors residence ever positively identified. The birth brick recently unearthed was in an area clearly identified as a female residential section of the house. Numerous inscribed clay seal impressions found in this area have the name of the "noblewoman and kings daughter Renseneb." Dr. Wegner suspects that this woman, who lived during Egypts 13th Dynasty, may have been a princess who was married to one of the towns mayors.
In ancient Egypt, where child mortality was high, Egyptians called upon the help of their gods through magical objects, like birth bricks, and special ritual practices during childbirth. The Egyptian birth brick was associated with a specific goddess, Meskhenet, sometimes depicted in the form of a brick with a human head. On the newly discovered birth brick, the main scene shows a mother with her newborn boy, attended on either side by women and by Hathor, a cow goddess closely associated with birth and motherhood.
The Egyptians likened the birth of a child to the rising of the sun at daybreak. The magical practices of childbirth were intended to protect a newborn baby in a way paralleling Egyptian myths where the young sun god required protection from hostile forces. On the birth brick from the Abydos excavation the sun god appears in symbolic form in the guise of a desert cat. Images of the guardians of the sun god decorate the sides of the brick, to magically provide similar protection for mother and child, according to Dr. Wegner.
One set of objects closely associated with the recently discovered birth brick are magical wands usually decorated with scenes of deities and demons--and the Penn excavators have discovered fragments of these as well in the mayors residence. Egyptologists know that such wands were used in a form of "sympathetic magic" that invoked divine forces to protect the newborn baby at the time of birth in the same way, according to Egyptian myth, that the allies of the sun god would protect him when he was young and vulnerable.
Dr. Wegner and his Penn team have been working in the Middle Kingdom town (circa 1850-1650 B.C.) named "Enduring-are-the-Places-of-Khakaure-true-of-voice-in-Abydos," since 1994. The positive identification in 1999 of a mayors residence, in this town that was organized around the service of Pharaoh Senwosret IIIs mortuary temple, was seen by Dr. Wegner as "a great opportunity to study an ancient mayors lifestyle." The discovery of the birth brick offers another piece of the story of life at that time and a rare glimpse into motherhood and childbirth in Ancient Egypt.
Pam Kosty | EurekAlert
NASA examines Peru's deadly rainfall
24.03.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Steep rise of the Bernese Alps
24.03.2017 | Universität Bern
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
24.03.2017 | Materials Sciences
24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy