Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Geologists Discover Magma and Carbon Dioxide Combine to Make ‘Soda-Pop’ Eruption

10.07.2008
Through an autopsy of an ancient Scandinavian mountain chain, a team of Texas Tech University geologists found that carbon dioxide can create explosive eruptions when magma encounters calcium carbonate-based rocks.

This discovery overturns a longtime belief by geologists, who thought that carbon dioxide was incapable of dissolving in magma, said Calvin Barnes, professor of geosciences and lead investigator.

Through a grant from the National Science Foundation, Barnes, Aaron Yoshinobu, associate professor of geosciences, and doctoral student Yujia Li, discovered that carbon dioxide is released when magma interacts with rocks such as limestone and marble. The carbon dioxide, when combined with the magma, can create more powerful eruptions.

“The main topic of our research involves magma’s interaction with rocks that release carbon dioxide,” he said. “Hot magma melts the calcium carbonate-rich rock, and it mixes with magma much like adding an ingredient to something you are cooking to change the consistency or flavor. This forms bubbles and increases the volume of the magma. In turn, it must be pushed out through an eruption in a manner similar to modern explosive volcanoes in Italy, including Mount Vesuvius.”

The Texas Tech geologists’ research is in collaboration with colleagues at the University of Trondheim, the Geological Survey of Norway, and the University of Wyoming. So far their research has yielded three papers in journals such as the Norwegian Journal of Geology and Lithos. Several more are pending.

Because searing hot temperatures prevent scientists from observing these reactions directly, Barnes studied samples from the ancient Caledonian fold belt in Norway – Scandinavia’s equivalent of the Appalachian Mountains of North America.

Erosion has exposed the layers of magma that solidified within earth’s crust when the Caledonian fold belt was formed, Barnes said. Through chemical analysis, he and Li confirmed that carbon dioxide not only is released when magma encounters calcium carbonated-based rocks, but also that a great deal of calcium dissolves in the magma and equal amounts of carbon dioxide are released. Just as carbon dioxide causes a soft drink to fizz, this caused the magma to bubble and expand until it reached the point of eruption.

Barnes’ research coupled with new experiments done by researchers in France and Italy has shown that the contamination of magma by carbonate not only is possible, but also it is capable of explaining many of the unusual characteristics of modern volcanoes such as Vesuvius, an active volcano located east of Naples, Italy, and the Alban Hills, located southeast of Rome.

He said that both the Alban Hills and Vesuvius produce unusually high amounts of carbon dioxide during eruptions because the crust beneath these volcanoes contains calcium carbonate-based limestone rocks.

Through their research, they can better understand eruptions and calculate the amounts of carbon dioxide released during volcanic activity. Understanding these concepts is important from a public safety standpoint since cities and towns are close by active volcanoes.

“It’s useful because a volcanic eruption gives you a snapshot of what is happening beneath Earth’s surface,” Barnes said.

CONTACT: Calvin Barnes, professor, Department of Geosciences, Texas Tech University, (806) 742-3106, or cal.barnes@ttu.edu.

Jessica Benham | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.ttu.edu

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht Geophysicists and atmospheric scientists partner to track typhoons' seismic footprints
16.02.2018 | Princeton University

nachricht NASA finds strongest storms in weakening Tropical Cyclone Sanba
15.02.2018 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Demonstration of a single molecule piezoelectric effect

Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale

Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...

Im Focus: Hybrid optics bring color imaging using ultrathin metalenses into focus

For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.

But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...

Im Focus: Stem cell divisions in the adult brain seen for the first time

Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.

The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...

Im Focus: Interference as a new method for cooling quantum devices

Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. Study published in Physical Review Letters

Quantum computer parts are sensitive and need to be cooled to very low temperatures. Their tiny size makes them particularly susceptible to a temperature...

Im Focus: Autonomous 3D scanner supports individual manufacturing processes

Let’s say the armrest is broken in your vintage car. As things stand, you would need a lot of luck and persistence to find the right spare part. But in the world of Industrie 4.0 and production with batch sizes of one, you can simply scan the armrest and print it out. This is made possible by the first ever 3D scanner capable of working autonomously and in real time. The autonomous scanning system will be on display at the Hannover Messe Preview on February 6 and at the Hannover Messe proper from April 23 to 27, 2018 (Hall 6, Booth A30).

Part of the charm of vintage cars is that they stopped making them long ago, so it is special when you do see one out on the roads. If something breaks or...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs)

15.02.2018 | Event News

Aachen DC Grid Summit 2018

13.02.2018 | Event News

How Global Climate Policy Can Learn from the Energy Transition

12.02.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Fingerprints of quantum entanglement

16.02.2018 | Information Technology

'Living bandages': NUST MISIS scientists develop biocompatible anti-burn nanofibers

16.02.2018 | Health and Medicine

Hubble sees Neptune's mysterious shrinking storm

16.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>