Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Northern lights glimmer with unexpected trait

24.04.2008
An international team of scientists has detected that some of the glow of Earth's aurora is polarized, an unexpected state for such emissions.

Measurements of this newfound polarization in the Northern Lights may provide scientists with fresh insights into the composition of Earth's upper atmosphere, the configuration of its magnetic field, and the energies of particles from the Sun, the researchers say.

If observed on other planets, the phenomenon might also give clues to the shape of the Sun's magnetic field as it curls around other bodies in the solar system.

When a beam of light is polarized, its electromagnetic waves share a common orientation, say, aligned vertically, or at some other angle. Until now, scientists thought that light from energized atoms and molecules in planetary upper atmospheres could not be polarized. The reason is simple: In spite of the low number of particles at the altitudes concerned (above 100 kilometers (60 miles)), there are still numerous collisions between molecules and gas atoms. Those collisions depolarize the emitted light.

Fifty years ago, an Australian researcher, Robert Duncan, claimed to observe what looked like polarization of auroral light, but other scientists found that single observation unconvincing.

To revisit the question, Jean Lilensten of the Laboratory of Planetology of Grenoble, France, and his colleagues studied auroral light with a custom-made telescope during the winters of 2006-2007 and 2007-2008. They made their observations from Svalbard Island, Norway, which is in the polar region, at a latitude of 79 degrees north.

At the north and south magnetic poles, many charged particles in the solar wind--a flow of electrically charged matter from the Sun--are captured by the planet's field and forced to plunge into the atmosphere. The particles strike atmospheric gases, causing light emissions.

Lilensten and his colleagues observed weak polarization of a red glow that radiates at an altitude of 220 kilometers (140 miles). The glow results from electrons hitting oxygen atoms. The scientists had suspected that such light might be polarized because Earth's magnetic field at high latitudes funnels the electrons, aligning the angles at which they penetrate the atmosphere.

The finding of auroral polarization "opens a new field in planetology," says Lilensten, who is the lead author of the study. He and his colleagues reported their results on 19 April in Geophysical Research Letters, a publication of the American Geophysical Union (AGU).

Fluctuations in the polarization measurements can reveal the energy of the particles coming from the Sun when they enter Earth's atmosphere, Lilensten notes. The intensity of the polarization gives clues to the composition of the upper atmosphere, particularly with regard to atomic oxygen.

Because polarization is strongest when the telescope points perpendicularly to the magnetic field lines, the measurements also provide a way to determine magnetic field configurations, Lilensten adds. That could prove especially useful as astronomers train their telescopes on other planetary atmospheres. If polarized emissions are observed there as well, the measurements may enable scientists to understand how the Sun's magnetic field is distorted by obstacles such as the planets Venus and Mars, which lack intrinsic magnetic fields.

Title:
"Polarization in aurorae: A new dimension for space environments studies"
Authors:
Jean Lilensten, Mathieu Barthelemy, Roland Thissen, Cyril Simon, Odile Dutuit:
CNRS-UJF, Laboratoire de Planetologie de Grenoble, Batiment D de physique, Grenoble, France; Cyril Simon is also at ESTEC, Noordwijk, Netherlands;

Joran Moen: Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Blindern, Oslo, Norway, and ESTEC, Noordwijk, Netherlands;

Dag A. Lorentzen, Fred Sigernes: Arctic Geophysics, University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway;

Pierre Olivier Amblard: CNRS-INPG, GIPSA Lab, BP 46, Saint Martin d'Heres, France.

Citation:
Lilensten, J., J. Moen, M. Barthelemy, R. Thissen, C. Simon, D. A. Lorentzen, O.

Dutuit, P. O. Amblard, and F. Sigernes (2008), Polarization in aurorae: A new dimension for space environments studies, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L08804, doi:10.1029/2007GL033006.

Contact information for coauthors:
Jean Lilensten: office: +33 (0) 4 76 51 41 49, email: jean.lilensten@obs.ujf- grenoble.fr

Peter Weiss | American Geophysical Union
Further information:
http://www.agu.org
http://www.obs.ujf-grenoble.fr

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht NASA eyes Pineapple Express soaking California
24.02.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

nachricht 'Quartz' crystals at the Earth's core power its magnetic field
23.02.2017 | Tokyo Institute of Technology

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>