Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

"Nutcracker Man" Had Fundamentally Different Diet

04.05.2011
Scientists: P. boisei probably grazed like ancient warthogs and hippos

An ancient, bipedal hominid needs a new nickname. Paranthropus boisei, a 2.3 million to 1.2 million-year-old primate, whom researchers say is an early human cousin, probably didn't crack nuts at all as his common handle suggests.

"Nutcracker Man" most likely ate grass and possibly sedges, said geochemist Thure Cerling, lead author of a study published in the May 2 online edition of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Cerling, a professor of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Utah, and colleagues determined P. boisei's diet by analyzing carbon isotope ratios in the tooth enamel of 24 teeth from 22 P. boisei's individuals. The hominid's diet has been a source of scientific debate because his powerful jaws, huge molars and big, flat cheek teeth indicated he probably fed on nuts and seeds or roots and tubers found in the savannas throughout Eastern Africa.

But, a few years ago, National Science Foundation sponsored research, led by anthropologists at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville, highlighted inconsistencies with the common view by analyzing scratches and wear marks on P. boisei's teeth.

That team concluded the wear marks were more consistent with modern-day, fruit-eating animals than with most modern-day primates. Now, Cerling as his team confirm P. boisei wasn't a big fan of nuts.

"Wherever we find this creature, it is predominantly eating tropical grasses or perhaps sedges," he said.

The isotope analysis indicated P. boisei individuals preferred C4 grasses and sedges over C3 trees, shrubs and bushes. The findings showed their diets averaged about 77 percent C4 plants, ranging from a low of 61 percent to a high of 91 percent.

That's statistically indistinguishable from the grass diets of grazing animals that lived at the same time: the ancestors of zebras, pigs, warthogs and hippos, said Cerling.

"They were competing with them," he said. "They were eating at the same table."

"Frankly, we didn't expect to find the primate equivalent of a cow dangling from a remote twig of our family tree," said study co-author Matt Sponheimer, anthropology professor at the University of Colorado Boulder.

"Fortunately for us, the work of several research groups over the last several years has begun to soften prevailing notions of early hominid diets. If we had presented our new results at a scientific meeting 20 years ago, we would have been laughed out of the room."

The researchers report the findings in a paper titled, "Diet of Paranthropus boisei in the Early Pleistocene of East Africa." The National Science Foundation's Physical Anthropology Program provided funding for the research.

Other authors included Emma Mbua, Frances Kirera, Fredrick Manthi and Meave Leakey from the National Museums of Kenya, Fredrick Grine from Stony Brook University in New York and Kevin Uno from the University of Utah.

Media Contacts
Bobbie Mixon, NSF (703) 292-8485 bmixon@nsf.gov
Lee Siegel, University of Utah (801) 581-8993 leesiegel@ucomm.utah.edu
Jim Scott, University of Colorado (303) 492-3114 jim.scott@colorado.edu
Principal Investigators
Thure Cerling, University of Utah (801) 581-5558 tcerling@comcast.net
Co-Investigators
Matt Sponheimer, University of Colorado (303) 735-2065 msponheimer@gmail.com
Related Websites
University of Utah - No Nuts for 'Nutcracker Man': http://www.unews.utah.edu/p/?r=042211-2

University of Colorado - Ancient bipedal hominid dubbed 'Nutcracker Man' preferred grass to nuts, new study finds: /news/longurl.cfm?id=229

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering. In fiscal year (FY) 2010, its budget is about $6.9 billion. NSF funds reach all 50 states through grants to nearly 2,000 universities and institutions. Each year, NSF receives over 45,000 competitive requests for funding, and makes over 11,500 new funding awards. NSF also awards over $400 million in professional and service contracts yearly.

Bobbie Mixon | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.nsf.gov
http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_videos.jsp?cntn_id=119424&media_id=69458&org=NSF

Further reports about: Colorado river NSF Nutcracker Man Paranthropus bipedal hominid tropical grass

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht A promising target in the quest for a 1-million-year-old Antarctic ice core
24.05.2018 | University of Washington

nachricht Tropical Peat Swamps: Restoration of Endangered Carbon Reservoirs
24.05.2018 | Leibniz-Zentrum für Marine Tropenforschung (ZMT)

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Powerful IT security for the car of the future – research alliance develops new approaches

The more electronics steer, accelerate and brake cars, the more important it is to protect them against cyber-attacks. That is why 15 partners from industry and academia will work together over the next three years on new approaches to IT security in self-driving cars. The joint project goes by the name Security For Connected, Autonomous Cars (SecForCARs) and has funding of €7.2 million from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Infineon is leading the project.

Vehicles already offer diverse communication interfaces and more and more automated functions, such as distance and lane-keeping assist systems. At the same...

Im Focus: Molecular switch will facilitate the development of pioneering electro-optical devices

A research team led by physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has developed molecular nanoswitches that can be toggled between two structurally different states using an applied voltage. They can serve as the basis for a pioneering class of devices that could replace silicon-based components with organic molecules.

The development of new electronic technologies drives the incessant reduction of functional component sizes. In the context of an international collaborative...

Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

In focus: Climate adapted plants

25.05.2018 | Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

In focus: Climate adapted plants

25.05.2018 | Event News

Flow probes from the 3D printer

25.05.2018 | Machine Engineering

Less is more? Gene switch for healthy aging found

25.05.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>