Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Plant Evolution Led to Permanent Changes to the Way Rivers Looked and Behaved

27.01.2010
Cast your mind back, oh, about 420 million years ago. There are giant fish swimming in the oceans, but it’ll be nearly another 200 million before dinosaurs and the first mammals arrive on the scene.

This is a time of continents colliding, North America and Greenland hitting Europe, smashing together and making mountains. The planet’s land mass is mostly dusty and barren. Rivers were more like great expanses of water sliding into the ocean.

“You’d hardly know the place,” says Martin Gibling, professor with Dalhousie’s Department of Earth Sciences. “There was bare rock and sand, with crusts of bacteria and algae over the rock surfaces. And ancient rivers were very different, like big sheets of water carrying sand and gravel. They weren’t like channels whatsoever.”

Dr. Gibling and postdoctoral researcher Neil S. Davies wanted to find out more about those big rivers. What happened during the evolution of the Earth to throw them for a loop?

“If you think of a river, it’s wavy, it’s meandering,” explains Dr. Gibling. “A river has curves, eroding into its bank on one side, and depositing sediments on the other.”

For the answers to one of the most significant environmental changes in the Earth’s history, they turned to the fossil record using a literature compilation and fieldwork. Their research took them to 35 sites around the globe, including Port-au-port, Newfoundland, the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec, the Channel Islands off the coast of France and Death Valley in California.

The difference, they discovered, was the earliest plants, stretching their roots down and stabilizing river banks. Instead of wide and sheet-like, rivers evolved to become more confined and narrower. Their research, highlighting the co-evolution of land plants and river landscapes, has just been published in the journals Geology and Earth-Science Reviews.

“Once the plants started to get a toehold, they sent spores into more inland areas,” says Dr. Davies, who hails from Birmingham, England. “The entire process took about 50 million years, with vegetation spreading until it dominated every landscape except total desert. The Earth could never be the same again.”

SEE: “Cambrian to Devonian evolution of alluvial systems: The sedimentological impact of the earliest land plants” in Earth-Science Reviews, February 2010

“Paleozoic vegetation and the Siluro-Devonian rise of fluvial lateral accretion sets” in Geology, January 2010

Charles Crosby | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.dal.ca

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht Supercomputing helps researchers understand Earth's interior
23.05.2017 | University of Illinois College of Liberal Arts & Sciences

nachricht How is climate change affecting fauna in the Arctic?
22.05.2017 | Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

Im Focus: Using graphene to create quantum bits

In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bits -- or qubits -- that are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. This normally needs highly nonlinear non-dissipative elements capable of functioning at very low temperatures.

In pursuit of this goal, researchers at EPFL's Laboratory of Photonics and Quantum Measurements LPQM (STI/SB), have investigated a nonlinear graphene-based...

Im Focus: Bacteria harness the lotus effect to protect themselves

Biofilms: Researchers find the causes of water-repelling properties

Dental plaque and the viscous brown slime in drainpipes are two familiar examples of bacterial biofilms. Removing such bacterial depositions from surfaces is...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

Innovation 4.0: Shaping a humane fourth industrial revolution

17.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Scientists propose synestia, a new type of planetary object

23.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Zap! Graphene is bad news for bacteria

23.05.2017 | Life Sciences

Medical gamma-ray camera is now palm-sized

23.05.2017 | Medical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>