Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Organic chemical origins in hydrothermal systems

23.01.2014
Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology reveal mechanisms for the formation of methane, which may have been a crucial stage in the origin of life on Earth.

Serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal systems have been suggested as likely sites for the formation of organic compounds in the abiotic conditions of early Earth, that is, in the absence of living organisms.


Geological map of the western Shiroumadake area. Circles and star indicate the studied hot springs. The star represents the location of the Hakuba Happo hot spring.

“Such compounds were likely crucial for the chemical evolution of life,” explain Konomi Suda and colleagues at Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan Agency of Marine-Earth Science and Technology and the Open University of Japan. Their latest research identifies mechanisms in the abiotic formation of the organic compound methane in serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal systems, a process that so far has not been satisfactorily understood.

The researchers compared water samples from a series of hot springs in the Shiroumadake area in Japan. Here due to recent volcanic activity they could study ongoing serpentinisation processes.

They measured the pH and temperature as well as the gas and ion content of the water samples in terms of both concentration and the ratio of different isotopes of the chemical constituents. Different isotopes of the same chemical differ in the number of neutrons in the nucleus. Each reaction yield characteristic isotope ratio because reaction rate of each isotopes are slightly different depending on processes.

Suda and colleagues found unexpected values for the ratio of different isotopes in the methane (CH4) and molecular hydrogen (H2) dissolved in the water, and the water itself (H2O) at the hot spring Hakuba Happo. In serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal systems methane was thought to form from synthesis with molecular hydrogen.

However the researchers found that the ratio of different isotopes and chemicals could not be explained for this process in the temperature and pH conditions they had measured. They conclude,

“Based on a comparison of the hydrogen isotope systematics of our results with those of other serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal systems, we suggest that abiotic CH4 production directly from H2O (without mediation by H2) may be more common in serpentinite-hosted systems.”

Background

Methane and organic compounds
Organic compounds are carbon based chemicals. The simplest organic compounds are strings of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen. These hydrogen bonds can substitute with other atoms and molecules to provide the wide ranging organic chemicals that are found in living organisms.

Methane is the simplest organic compound comprising just one carbon atom bonded to four hydrogens. In the absence of living organisms methane synthesis can occur through abiotic mechanisms, which likely played a significant role in the early Earth environment. Possible abiotic mechanisms include the formation of methane directly from H2O or H2. The formation mechanism and conditions such as temperature and pH determine the relative levels of different isotopes.

The hot spring Hakuba Happo
The researchers compared water samples from five hot springs in the Shiroumadake area in Japan. One of these sites is Hakuba Happo, a newly discovered serpentinite-hosted system. Serpentinite is a rock that results from the geochemical processes of hydration and metamorphic transformation of ultramafic rock from the Earth's mantle.

The water at Hakuba Happo is pumped up from two drilling wells Happo #1 and Happo #3. It is one of the most alkaline hot springs in Japan and the concentration of CH4 was 10-100 times that of the other hot springs.

Isotopic fractionation and fractionation equilibrium
Different chemical isotopes that differ by the number of neutrons in the atomic nuclei form the same chemical compounds. For example both hydrogen (no neutrons in the nucleus) and deuterium (one neutron in the nucleus) can form molecular hydrogen (H2), water (H2O) and methane (CH4).

Processes described as ‘fractionation’ affect the relative abundance of different isotopes in the chemical compounds in a given system. Fractionation equilibrium describes the system when the abundance of isotopes in the different chemicals no longer changes with time. Comparing known fractionation equilibrium values with the measured isotopic abundance provides clues of processes that have taken place in the system.

Further information
Yukiko Tokida, Miwako Kato
Center for Public Information, Tokyo Institute of Technology
2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
E-mail: kouhou@jim.titech.ac.jp
URL: http://www.titech.ac.jp/english/
Tel: +81-3-5734-2975 Fax: +81-3-5734-3661
About Tokyo Institute of Technology
As one of Japan’s top universities, Tokyo Institute of Technology seeks to contribute to civilization, peace and prosperity in the world, and aims at developing global human capabilities par excellence through pioneering research and education in science and technology, including industrial and social management. To achieve this mission, we have an eye on educating highly moral students to acquire not only scientific expertise but also expertise in the liberal arts, and a balanced knowledge of the social sciences and humanities, all while researching deeply from basics to practice with academic mastery. Through these activities, we wish to contribute to global sustainability of the natural world and the support of human life.

Website: http://www.titech.ac.jp/english/

Associated links
•http://www.titech.ac.jp/english/
Journal information
Konomi Sudaa∗, Yuichiro Uenoa,b,c, Motoko Yoshizakia, Hitomi Nakamuraa, Ken Kurokawac,d, Eri Nishiyamad, Koji Yoshinod, Yuichi Hongohe, Kenichi Kawachie, Soichi Omorif, Keita Yamadag, Naohiro Yoshidac,g, Shigenori Maruyamaa, “Origin of methane in serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal systems: The CH4–H2–H2O hydrogen isotope systematics of the Hakuba Happo hot spring” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 2014, 386 112-125.

a Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551, Japan

b Precambrian Ecosystem Laboratory, Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), 2-15 Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka237-0061, Japan

c Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551, Japan

d Department of Bioinformation, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuda, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502, Japan

e Department of Biological Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku,Tokyo 152-8550, Japan

f Faculty of Liberal Arts, The Open University of Japan, 2-11 Wakaba, Mihama-ku, Chiba 261-8586, Japan

g Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuda, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502, Japan

Adarsh Sandhu | Research asia research news
Further information:
http://www.titech.ac.jp/english/
http://www.researchsea.com

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht New Link Between Ocean Microbes and Atmosphere Uncovered
22.05.2015 | University of California, San Diego

nachricht Scientists tackle mystery of thunderstorms that strike at night
21.05.2015 | National Center for Atmospheric Research/University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Basel Physicists Develop Efficient Method of Signal Transmission from Nanocomponents

Physicists have developed an innovative method that could enable the efficient use of nanocomponents in electronic circuits. To achieve this, they have developed a layout in which a nanocomponent is connected to two electrical conductors, which uncouple the electrical signal in a highly efficient manner. The scientists at the Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel have published their results in the scientific journal “Nature Communications” together with their colleagues from ETH Zurich.

Electronic components are becoming smaller and smaller. Components measuring just a few nanometers – the size of around ten atoms – are already being produced...

Im Focus: IoT-based Advanced Automobile Parking Navigation System

Development and implementation of an advanced automobile parking navigation platform for parking services

To fulfill the requirements of the industry, PolyU researchers developed the Advanced Automobile Parking Navigation Platform, which includes smart devices,...

Im Focus: First electrical car ferry in the world in operation in Norway now

  • Siemens delivers electric propulsion system and charging stations with lithium-ion batteries charged from hydro power
  • Ferry only uses 150 kilowatt hours (kWh) per route and reduces cost of fuel by 60 percent
  • Milestone on the road to operating emission-free ferries

The world's first electrical car and passenger ferry powered by batteries has entered service in Norway. The ferry only uses 150 kWh per route, which...

Im Focus: Into the ice – RV Polarstern opens the arctic season by setting course for Spitsbergen

On Tuesday, 19 May 2015 the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its home port in Bremerhaven, setting a course for the Arctic. Led by Dr Ilka Peeken from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) a team of 53 researchers from 11 countries will investigate the effects of climate change in the Arctic, from the surface ice floes down to the seafloor.

RV Polarstern will enter the sea-ice zone north of Spitsbergen. Covering two shallow regions on their way to deeper waters, the scientists on board will focus...

Im Focus: Gel filled with nanosponges cleans up MRSA infections

Nanoengineers at the University of California, San Diego developed a gel filled with toxin-absorbing nanosponges that could lead to an effective treatment for skin and wound infections caused by MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), an antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This "nanosponge-hydrogel" minimized the growth of skin lesions on mice infected with MRSA - without the use of antibiotics. The researchers recently published their findings online in Advanced Materials.

To make the nanosponge-hydrogel, the team mixed nanosponges, which are nanoparticles that absorb dangerous toxins produced by MRSA, E. coli and other...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International symposium: trends in spatial analysis and modelling for a more sustainable land use

20.05.2015 | Event News

15th conference of the International Association of Colloid and Interface Scientists

18.05.2015 | Event News

EHFG 2015: Securing health in Europe. Balancing priorities, sharing responsibilities

12.05.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

Mesoporous Particles for the Development of Drug Delivery System Safe to Human Bodies

22.05.2015 | Materials Sciences

Computing at the Speed of Light

22.05.2015 | Information Technology

Development of Gold Nanoparticles That Control Osteogenic Differentiation of Stem Cells

22.05.2015 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>