The TRMM satellite got a very good look at recently formed Tropical Depression 4E (TD 4E) at 1040 UTC (6:40 a.m. EDT) on July 4, 2012. The hot towering cumulonimbus clouds called "hot towers" shooting up like a roman candle around the center of circulation provide the fireworks for the depression.
When TRMM passed over TD 4E on July 4, 2012, it saw strong convective storms were dropping heavy rainfall (red) near the center of the tropical depression's center of circulation. That rain was falling at a rate of more than 2 inches/50 mm per hour. TRMM's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument found that a few of these towering storms reached heights of about 15 km (~9.3 miles).
Credit: SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce
A "hot tower" is a rain cloud that reaches at least to the top of the troposphere, the lowest layer of the atmosphere. It extends approximately nine miles (14.5 km) high in the tropics. These towers are called "hot" because they rise to such altitude due to the large amount of latent heat. Water vapor releases this latent heat as it condenses into liquid.
Research by Owen Kelley and John Stout of George Mason University and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., shows that a tropical cyclone with a hot tower in its eyewall was twice as likely to intensify within the next six hours than a cyclone that lacked a tower and Tropical Depression 4E became Daniel by 11 a.m. EDT on July 5.
When TRMM passed over TD 4E, rainfall data from TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) instruments revealed that strong convective storms were dropping heavy rainfall near the center of the tropical depression's center of circulation. TRMM's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument found that a few of these towering storms reached heights of about 15 km (~9.3 miles). TRMM PR also found that rainfall within TD 4E was returning reflectivity values of over 51.5 dBZ. Those data provided additional proof that heavy rainfall was occurring within TD 4E.
At 5 p.m. EDT on July 4, the depression has maximum winds near 35 mph/55 kmh, and is about 445 miles (715 km) south-southwest of Manzanillo, Mexico. That's near 13.5 North and 107.8 West. It was moving to the west-northwest at 13 mph/20 kmh and headed away from land and out to sea.
At 11 a.m. EDT (8 a.m. PDT) on July 5, 2012, Tropical Depression 4E became Tropical Storm Danie with maximum sustained winds now near 45 mph (75 kmh). It was located near latitude 14.2 north and longitude 110.5 west. That's about 600 miles (970 km) south of the southern tip of Baja California. Daniel is moving toward the west-northwest near 12 mph (19 kmh). That general motion is forecast to continue, followed by a turn to the west, according to the National Hurricane Center.
Rob Gutro | EurekAlert!
Less radiation in inner Van Allen belt than previously believed
21.03.2017 | DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory
Mars volcano, Earth's dinosaurs went extinct about the same time
21.03.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
22.03.2017 | Materials Sciences
22.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
22.03.2017 | Materials Sciences