When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Cyclone Garry the AIRS instrument captured an infrared image of Garry's clouds, providing temperature data to forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (whom forecast tropical cyclones in that region). AIRS, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder instrument, showed that there was a large area of powerful thunderstorms where cloud tops were so high that they were as cold as -63 degrees Fahrenheit (-52 Celsius). Those thunderstorms were producing heavy rainfall over the open waters of the Southern Pacific Ocean.
NASA's TRMM satellite saw tropical cyclone Garry moving through the open waters of the South Pacific Ocean on Jan. 25, 2013, at 0909 UTC. The heaviest rainfall (red) was occurring in Garry's eastern quadrant at a rate of 2 inches (50 mm) per hour.
Credit: SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce
Cyclone Garry appeared to be near its peak on Jan. 25 when the storm's maximum sustained winds reached 85 knots (97.8 mph/157.4 kph). At 0900 UTC (4 a.m. EST) Garry's center was located near 16.6 south latitude and 160.2 west longitude, about 515 nautical miles (592.7 miles/953.8 km) west of Bora Bora. Garry was moving to the southeast at 15 knots (17.2 mph/27.7 kph).
Warnings and Watches Posted
The Fiji Meteorological Service has issued storm warnings for the southern group of the Cook Islands that include: Rarotonga, Aitutaki, Mangaia, Atiu, Mauke, Mitiaro, Palmerston, Manuae and Takutea.
A storm warning is in effect for Aitutaki, Manuae, Takutea and Atiu. Sustained winds of 60 knots (69 mph/111.1 kph) with higher gusts can be expected as Garry approaches and passes. Garry is expected to generate high seas and heavy rainfall that could produce flooding in low-lying coastal areas. A gale warning is in effect for Mauke, Mitiaro, Mangaia and Rarotonga. Squally thunderstorms with heavy rainfall may cause flooding in low-lying areas. Garry is expected to bring sustained winds of 40 knots (46 mph/74 kph) with higher gusts and rough seas.A strong wind warning is in effect for the rest of the southern Cooks. Strong southeast winds with average speeds of 25 to 30 knots (28.7 to 34.5 mph / 46.3 to 55.5 kph) are expected with squally thunderstorms and periods of heavy rainfall. Seas are expected to be rough, and some low-lying flooding is possible. For updates on warnings and watches from the Fiji Meteorological Service, visit: http://www.met.gov.fj/current_warnings.php
TRMM's main mission is to measure rainfall over tropics but has frequently been useful for monitoring tropical cyclones. The rainfall data compiled on Tropical Cyclone Garry was from two TRMM instruments. Rain rates in the Garry's center were taken from the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR), the first precipitation radar in space, while rain rates in the outer swath were taken from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). The heaviest rainfall was occurring in Garry's eastern quadrant at a rate of 2 inches (50 mm) per hour.
TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) is a passive microwave sensor designed to estimate rainfall in an 878 km (~545.6 miles) wide area by measuring the amount of microwave energy emitted by the Earth and its atmosphere. TRMM PR has a horizontal resolution at the ground of about 5.0 km (~3.1 miles) and sees a strip of the earth that is 154 miles (247 kilometers) wide.
TRMM PR can peer through obscuring clouds and provides 3-D vertical profiles of rain and snow from the Earth's surface up to a height of about 12 miles (20 kilometers). The 3-D and rainfall imagery is created at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.
Steering the Storm
The upper levels of the atmosphere are a major factor in the life and behavior of a tropical cyclone. Forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) analyzed the upper levels of the atmosphere above Garry and found that the system is deeply embedded in the prevailing westerly winds. Those upper level winds are contributing to Garry's intensification.
By Jan. 27, a trough (elongated area) of low pressure is expected to approach Garry and change its direction to a more east-southeasterly direction.
As Garry moves further to the south, forecasters at JTWC expect vertical wind shear to increase and make the storm decay. Garry is expected to become an extra-tropical cyclone over the next couple of days and become a cold core low by Jan. 29.
Rob Gutro | EurekAlert!
Further reports about: > Aqua satellite > Bora Bora > Goddard Space Flight Center > Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory > Pacific Ocean > Pacific coral > TRMM satellite > Typhoon Warning > Typhoon Warning Center > heavy rain > heavy rainfall > speed|scan atlineCT-System > tropical cyclone > tropical diseases
In times of climate change: What a lake’s colour can tell about its condition
21.09.2017 | Leibniz-Institut für Gewässerökologie und Binnenfischerei (IGB)
Did marine sponges trigger the ‘Cambrian explosion’ through ‘ecosystem engineering’?
21.09.2017 | Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
19.09.2017 | Event News
12.09.2017 | Event News
06.09.2017 | Event News
22.09.2017 | Life Sciences
22.09.2017 | Medical Engineering
22.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy