Most atmospheric models predict that the rate of transport of air from the troposphere to the above lying stratosphere should be increasing due to climate change. Surprisingly, Dr. Andreas Engel together with an international group of researchers has now found that this does not seem to be happening.
On the contrary, it seems that the air air masses are moving more slowly than predicted. This could also imply that recovery of the ozone layer may be somewhat slower than predicted by state-of-the-art atmospheric climate models.
The researchers have published their results in Nature Geoscience (10.1038/NGEO388). They investigate the time it takes to transport the atmospheric trace gases sulfurhexafluoride (SF6) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from the troposphere (the atmospheric layer between the ground and about 10 km) to the stratosphere (the atmospheric layer between about 10 and 50 km altitude). They derive this "age" of the air from trace-gas measurements performed with large research balloons carrying measurement instrumentation up to altitudes of 35 km . As these measurements are quite complex and expensive, they can only be performed sporadically. In cooperation with German, American and Japanese colleagues, the group gathered all measurements of these trace gases available world-wide. For this purpose, archived air samples which were collected more than 30 years ago in the stratosphere above North American, have been analysed in Frankfurt. Andreas Engel explains that „Sulfurhexafluoride is amongst the most stable gases in the atmosphere, meaning that using today's analytical techniques, it is possible to analyse even extremely small amounts present in the 30 year-old air samples."
While state-of-the-art climate models predict an increase in stratospheric transport and thus younger ages, the measurements indicate that the age seems to have increased slightly, meaning that the transport rates have not increased. The Frankfurt research group wants to continue the long-term measurement series in order to provide further measurements which can help to evaluate the model predictions and document the long-term evolution of the atmosphere. Due to the results presented now, the predictions of atmospheric models must be re-evaluated. Andreas Engel emphasises that „our results do not contradict the principal global change predicted by the models, yet the exact mechanisms of how this influences transport of air in the upper atmosphere do not seem to be fully understood. More research is needed here."
Andreas Engel | EurekAlert!
GPM sees deadly tornadic storms moving through US Southeast
01.12.2016 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Cyclic change within magma reservoirs significantly affects the explosivity of volcanic eruptions
30.11.2016 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...
The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering
02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science
02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy