Despite the detection of bromine monoxide (BrO) in the atmosphere some 20 years ago, bromine nitrate (BrONO2) was first observed in 2008 when scientists from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology discovered the gas’s weak signal with data from MIPAS (the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding).
Since chlorine levels in the stratosphere have been dropping since the ban on man-made chlorofluorocarbons, bromine will become even more important in stratospheric ozone chemistry. Bromine’s importance will increase in part because there are more natural sources, such as volcanoes, for bromine emissions than for chlorine.
Volcanoes have long been known to play an important role in influencing stratospheric ozone chemistry because of the gases and particles they shoot into the atmosphere. New findings from space suggest they are also a very important source of atmospheric bromine.The reactive chemical bromine monoxide has been measured in a number of volcanic plumes around the globe, but until recently it had never been measured by a space instrument.
The following day, scientists from the Brussels-based Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy identified high bromine concentrations in the vicinity of the volcano with Envisat’s SCIAMACHY instrument and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) instrument aboard MetOp-A. (MetOp-A, developed by ESA and the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), is Europe's first polar-orbiting satellite dedicated to operational meteorology.)
"Because of the good regional coverage of the GOME-2 instrument, the transport of the Kasatochi BrO plume could be followed for six days after the eruption," Michel Van Roozendael from the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy said. "Using the Lagrangian dispersion model, results show that the volcanic BrO was directly injected into the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere at altitudes ranging from 8 - 12 km.
"The total mass of reactive bromine released in the atmosphere was estimated around 50 - 120 tonnes, which corresponds to approximately 25% of the previously estimated total annual mass of reactive bromine emitted by volcanic activity."
Mariangela D'Acunto | EurekAlert!
Further reports about: > BrO > BrONO2 > GOME-2 satellite > MIPAS BrONO2 dataset > MetOp-A > SCIAMACHY > Volcanoes > atmosphere > bromine emissions > bromine monoxide > bromine nitrate > bromine species > chlorine > man-made chlorofluorocarbons > ozone-depleting species > stratospheric bromine > stratospheric ozone > stratospheric ozone chemistry > ultraviolet rays
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