Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Cooperative SO2 and NOx aerosol formation in haze pollution

29.01.2014
Air pollution in China has exhibited noticeable changes over the past 30 years, shifting from point-source pollution (around factories and industrial plants) in the 1980s to urban pollution in the 1990s.

This shows a) particle number size distributions and b) fractional contributions of organics, nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, and chloride to the PM1 mass during the haze episode from 06:00 to 15:00 LT, Jan. 12, 2013.

Credit: ©Science China Press

Since the start of this century, air pollution has become increasingly regional and more complex. Recent research has indicated that the cooperative transition of SO2 and NOx into secondary aerosols (sulfate and nitrate) played a critical role in the haze pollution episode in China in January 2013.

The coexistence of high concentrations of primary and secondary gaseous and particulate pollutants results in numerous heterogeneous reactions occurring on the surfaces of fine particles. These reactions change the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere, chemical compositions, and the physicochemical and optical properties of the particulate matter. The overall effect is that air pollution and haze formation is accelerated.

It is, therefore, important to explore the formation mechanisms of secondary aerosols during air pollution episodes. The paper, "Mechanism for the formation of the January 2013 heavy haze pollution episode over central and eastern China", Science China: Earth Sciences, No. 1, 2014, by Professor Wang and co-workers shows that the formation of secondary sulfate aerosols from SO2 increases in the presence of NOx.

This study explores the cooperative transition of SO2 and NOx into secondary aerosols on the surfaces of carbon-containing particles through heterogeneous reactions. The formation of sulfates from SO2 is promoted by the existence of NOx. Results show that as the particle size increases, the fractional contributions of secondary inorganic ions, such as sulfate and nitrate, also increase (Figure 1). The hygroscopicity of the particles increase and the increased water content can accelerate the gas–liquid–solid reactions of SO2 and NOx, which further increases the hygroscopicity of the particles. These processes form a positive feedback mechanism that enhances the conversion of primary gas pollutants into secondary aerosols. Consequently, it is important to reduce emissions of the precursor gases of PM2.5 to reduce the overall PM2.5 concentrations in the atmosphere. The authors conclude that in central and eastern China, SO2 and NOx should be controlled synchronously to reduce PM2.5 concentrations.

Corresponding author:

LIU Zirui
lzr@dq.cern.ac.cn
See the article:
WANG, Y. S., YAO, L., WANG, L. L., LIU, Z. R., JI, D. S., TANG, G. Q., ZHANG, J. K., HU, B., XIN, J. Y. Mechanism for the formation of the January 2013 heavy haze pollution episode over central and eastern China. SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, 2014, doi: 10.1007/s11430-013-4773-4.

links: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11430-013-4773-4.

Science China Press Co., Ltd. (SCP) is a scientific journal publishing company of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). For 60 years, SCP takes its mission to present to the world the best achievements by Chinese scientists on various fields of natural sciences researches.

YAN Bei | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.scichina.org

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht From Finding Nemo to minerals – what riches lie in the deep sea?
29.07.2014 | European Geosciences Union

nachricht Lead Pollution Beat Explorers to South Pole, Persists Today
29.07.2014 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Counting down to FEBS-EMBO 2014 in Paris, France

29.07.2014 | Event News

9th European Wood-Based Panel Symposium 2014 – meeting point for the wood-based material branch

24.07.2014 | Event News

“Lens on Life” - Artists and Scientists Explore Cell Divison

08.07.2014 | Event News

 
Latest News

Scientists discover genetic switch that can prevent peripheral vascular disease in mice

29.07.2014 | Life Sciences

From Finding Nemo to minerals – what riches lie in the deep sea?

29.07.2014 | Earth Sciences

Physicists unlock nature of high-temperature superconductivity

29.07.2014 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>