Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Computer simulations shed light on the physics of rainbows

07.12.2011
Computer scientists at UC San Diego, who set out to simulate all rainbows found in nature, wound up answering questions about the physics of rainbows as well.

The scientists recreated a wide variety of rainbows – primary rainbows, secondary rainbows, redbows that form at sunset and cloudbows that form on foggy days – by using an improved method for simulating how light interacts with water drops of various shapes and sizes. Their new approach even yielded realistic simulations of difficult-to-replicate “twinned” rainbows that split their primary bow in two.


A range of simulated rainbows: From left: Rainbow based on the prevailing theory to simulate rainbows, primary rainbow with supernumerary bow, primary bow and double rainbow, primary bow with supernumerary bows and twinned rainbow, where the primary bow splits in two.

UC San Diego alumnus Iman Sadeghi, who did the work while a Ph.D. student at the Jacobs School of Engineering, his advisor, computer science professor Henrik Wann Jensen, and scientists from Spain, England and Switzerland, are set to publish their findings in ACM Transactions on Graphics in December of this year.

“This goes beyond computer graphics,” Jensen said. “We now have an almost complete picture of how rainbows form.”

Jensen is no stranger to advances in computer graphics. He earned an Academy Award in 2004 for research that brought life-like skin to animated characters. He has worked on a number of Hollywood blockbusters, including James Cameron’s “Avatar.”

Jensen, Sadeghi and colleagues originally set out to simulate rainbows to better understand how spherical water drops interact with light, resulting in the bright, multi-colored arcs that we are used to seeing when rain stops or in tropical, humid weather. They were hoping to improve techniques used in animated movies and video games.

“You usually don’t get the opportunity to study such beautiful phenomena while working on your Ph.D thesis,” said Sadeghi, who is now a software engineer in the graphics division of Google in Santa Monica. “There is a lot more to rainbows than meets the eye.”

As they started running various simulations, the scientists realized that the interaction of light with spherical drops could not explain some kinds of rainbows, such as twinned rainbows. Scientists turned to research showing that, as a water drop falls, air pressure flattens the bottom of it and shapes it like a burger. Jensen and his team called these slightly deformed water drops “burgeroids.” “It’s not a very mathematical term, but we like to use it,” Jensen said. Simulations based on the so-called burgeroids, rather than on spherical drops of water, allowed the researchers to replicate a wide range of rainbows found in nature. “We are the first to present an accurate simulation of twinned rainbows,” Sadeghi said.

The basic mechanism behind the formation of rainbows has been well understood for hundreds of years: A beam of light is both reflected and refracted within the water drop, and becomes strongly concentrated near the “rainbow angle” in the drop. The rainbow angle changes with the color of the light. As a result, sunlight separates into its spectral components, forming the colors we see in the sky. “The variation in the appearance of rainbows is due to the size and shape of rain drops” Sadeghi said.

It is surprising that the physics of rainbows are still not completely understood, Jensen said. In the past, eminent scientists, including Isaac Newton and French mathematician Rene Descartes, made calculations and conducted experiments to explain how rainbows form. But today, funding for rainbow research is scarce and so is work on the topic.

Jensen’s quest to learn about the physics of rainbows led him to the Light and Color in Nature conference at St. Mary’s College in St. Mary’s City, Md. He served as keynote speaker and met Philip Laven, an internationally renowned expert on rainbows, who became one of the study’s co-authors.

Until now, most simulations of rainbows had assumed that water drops are spherical, which isn’t true for large rain drops, Laven said. In this paper, researchers have adopted a completely different approach and developed a more realistic model to recreate rainbows, he said.

“The simulations shown in this paper offer the prospect of a better understanding of real rainbows,” Laven said. “I hope that the next step will be to use these new techniques for a systematic investigation of rainbows caused by realistically shaped rain drops.”

Jensen, Sadeghi, Laven and their colleagues plan to present their findings at the SIGGRAPH conference in 2012, which will take place in Los Angeles. Jensen also plans to attend the next Light and Color in Nature conference, which will take place in Alaska. Will he try to simulate the Northern Lights next? He just might, he said.

Ioana Patringenaru | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ucsd.edu
http://www.jacobsschool.ucsd.edu/news/news_releases/release.sfe?id=1144

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology
22.06.2017 | Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft

nachricht How reliable are shells as climate archives?
21.06.2017 | Leibniz-Zentrum für Marine Tropenforschung (ZMT)

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Equipping form with function

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>