Ongoing Retreat in the Arctic, new maximum in the Antarctic
The area of sea ice in the Arctic fell to a summer minimum of around 5.0 million square kilometres this year, which is about 1.6 million square kilometres more than the record low in 2012. However, according to sea ice physicist Marcel Nicolaus from the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) and Lars Kaleschke from the Hamburg Cluster of Excellence for Climate Research (CliSAP) this confirms the long-term downward trend in the Arctic.
Arctic, 31. August 2014: Scientists take sea ice samples out of Polarstern's mummy chair.
Photo: Ruediger Stein / Alfred Wegener Institute
On the other hand, the winter ice sheet in the South Polar Ocean has expanded to an area of 20.0 million square kilometres, as the researchers report, which exceeds the 30-year-maximum from the previous year. This Thursday, September 18, Marcel Nicolaus, Lars Kaleschke and other leading sea ice experts will be available for discussions and interviews at an international sea ice symposium in Hamburg.
“The current minimum sea ice in the Arctic illustrates the continuation of a long-term downward trend. With an area of 5.0 million square kilometres, the 2014 minimum approximately equals last year’s minimum. This by no means represents a trend reversal in Arctic sea ice developments – despite the fact that the remaining sea ice area is larger than in the two ‘extreme years’ 2007 and 2012,” says sea ice physicist Marcel Nicolaus from the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research.
In the negative-record years, weather phenomena led to a particularly large reduction in sea ice. “In 2007, a stable high pressure area in early summer resulted in numerous melt pools forming on the ice. They absorbed energy from the sun, which further intensified the melting. In summer 2012, there was exceptional melting on the underside of the ice, and in August that year there was a severe storm, which stirred up the ice. Such extreme weather was largely absent in 2014,” explains Lars Kaleschke from the Hamburg Cluster of Excellence for Climate Research CliSAP.
Large Regional Differences
In the last few weeks, there have been unusually marked regional differences in ice development. For example: In the last two weeks of August, on its way to the region of the undersea mountain chain Alpha Ridge, the German research icebreaker Polarstern was unable to break the ice north of the Canadian Archipelago, while the ice in the Russian Laptev Sea retreated further north than ever before observed by satellites. “In the first days of September, the ice edge in the Laptev Sea was north of the 85th parallel, only about 500 km from the North Pole. In 2006, the distance from the North Pole to open sea was more than more than twice that,” says Lars Kaleschke.
Expanding Ice Sheets in the Antarctic
There are currently exceptionally large areas of sea ice in the Antarctic, where the ice sheet generally reaches its spring maximum in September or October. “At the moment, ice covers a sea area of around 20 million square kilometres and therewith exceeds the 30-year-maximum of 19.65 million square kilometres from the previous year. This data backs up our observation that sea ice coverage in the Antarctic has increased in recent years. This is especially true for the Weddell Sea, where we do most of our research,” says Marcel Nicolaus.
However, the researchers do not feel the sea ice situation in the Antarctic can be compared with the conditions in the Arctic, given the differences in their geographical and meteorological circumstances. “Whereas the Arctic Ocean represents a Mediterranean of sorts surrounded by land masses, what we see in the Antarctic is an ice-covered continent surrounded by the Southern Ocean. Here the Antarctic Circumpolar Current limits the maximum sea ice expansion. Wind and waves greatly influence the ice edge – and the amounts of precipitation and glacial meltwater determine the percentage of fresh water, which in turn helps to determine how much sea ice forms in winter,” explains Lars Kaleschke.
The international scientific community is currently discussing a variety of factors as possible explanations for the major expansion of Antarctic sea ice. For example, the growth in area could have been set off by changed wind currents and rising meltwater. (For more on this discussion, visit our sea ice portal: http://bit.ly/1rtLX44 )
Invitation to the Symposium in Hamburg
Lars Kaleschke, Marcel Nicolaus and other international sea ice experts will meet this Thursday and Friday (Sept. 18-19, 2014) at a sea ice symposium in Hamburg, which will primarily focus on satellite-assisted ice measurement. The researchers hope to develop methods that will allow them to combine a variety of different satellite datasets to generate reliable and mutually comparable long-term data series on sea ice expansion, concentration and thickness. (For details on the workshop, please see: http://www.climate-cryosphere.org/meetings/seaice-conc-2014)
Interested journalists are warmly invited to use the workshop as an opportunity to talk with the researchers, who will be available for interviews on sea ice from 2:00 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. on Thursday, September 18, 2014. For more information, please contact Markus Dressel at the Public Relations Office for the Cluster of Excellence CliSAP (contact details below).
The workshop will be held at the Center for Earth System Research and Sustainability (CEN), Universität Hamburg, Bundessstraße 53, 20146 Hamburg (formerly the ZMAW building).
Notes for Editors:
We will be pleased to provide contact information for the participating researchers on request.
Our multimedia resources:
• The latest sea ice maps and time series from the Arctic and Antarctic: http://www.awi.de/en/news/press_releases/
• Sea ice photographs from the Arctic and Antarctic: http://www.awi.de/de/aktuelles_und_presse/bild_film_ton/bildergalerien/fotogalerie_meereis/
• Animation: Sea ice development in the course of 2013 – the Arctic and Antarctic in comparison: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=55p5ygKgxio&list=PLFCwd9Up8tvCdlCyXKSWxggqim0gy3TLw
• AWI Fact Sheet on sea ice (released September 2013): http://www.awi.de/de/aktuelles_und_presse/hintergrund/ipcc/fact_sheet_meereis/
Your academic contact partners are:
• Dr. Marcel Nicolaus (tel.: +49 471 4831-2905, e-mail: Marcel.Nicolaus(at)awi.de)
• Prof. Dr. Lars Kaleschke, (tel.: +49 40 42838-6518, e-mail: lars.kaleschke(at)uni-hamburg.de )
At the press offices of the Alfred Wegener Institute and the Cluster of Excellence CliSAP, the following contact partners will be happy to assist you:
• Sina Löschke, Alfred Wegener Institute (tel: +49 471 4831-2008; e-mail: medien(at)awi.de)
• Markus Dressel, CliSAP/CEN (tel: +49 40 42838-7596, e-mail: markus.dressel(at)uni-hamburg.de)
Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft
From volcano's slope, NASA instrument looks sky high and to the future
27.04.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Penn researchers quantify the changes that lightning inspires in rock
27.04.2017 | University of Pennsylvania
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
03.04.2017 | Event News
27.04.2017 | Life Sciences
27.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
27.04.2017 | Earth Sciences