Her PhD thesis "Surface and Deep Circulation off South Africa: Agulhas Leakage Influence on the Meridional Overturning Circulation During the Last 345 kyr" presented data on a major ocean current in the southern hemisphere, the Agulhas Current, which transports warm waters from the tropical Indian Ocean to the southern tip of Africa.
These new data profiles are not yet fully exploited and need to be implemented in global ocean models. But they do provide for the first time robust evidence in support of the hypothesis that the Agulhas water "leakage" into the Atlantic contributes to the strength of the Atlantic Ocean circulation at large, and the Gulf Stream in particular and therefore can stabilise or destabilise climate in Europe. This knowledge will improve predictive capabilities which aim to project future climate developments in the North Atlantic region under global climate warming scenarios, such as those employed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
The Agulhas Current influences rainfall patterns and weather systems in southern Africa. A part of the warm waters are transported around South Africa into the South Atlantic and influence the ocean circulation of the entire Atlantic Ocean. Climate models predict that the amount of this water "leakage" from the Indian Ocean into the Atlantic may in fact strengthen or weaken the Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic with consequences for climate in Europe, including the Iberian Peninsula. Measurements in the ocean so far have not permitted to test if a connection between the Agulhas Current around South Africa and the climate in Europe indeed exists.
For her project, Martínez-Méndez used stable isotope gas mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to analyse isotopic and chemical components in the sediments underneath the Agulhas Current which document variations of this current in the past. The data profiles document that systematic changes occurred in the Agulhas Current which were directly connected with global climate changes. A combination of temperature sensitive isotopes and trace elements which are preserved in the shells of marine micro-plankton indicate that under cold climatic conditions such as the ice ages, when the rest of the world dramatically cooled, the influence of the Agulhas Current strengthened and the oceans around South Africa warmed. Ocean warming is documented also by the high abundance of tropical plankton which was preserved in the seafloor sediments. When global climate began to warm at the end of cold periods, the Agulhas Current initially became stronger and then abruptly weakened to assume a strength similar to that of today.
The implications from this research are that the flow of water coming from the tropical Indian Ocean can occasionally form a warm water pool at the southern tip of Africa. Under appropriate conditions, this water is abruptly released into the Atlantic Ocean. Because these waters also have high concentrations of salt they ultimately stimulate a density anomaly in the South Atlantic which triggers internal waves in the deep water and ultimately influence the Gulf Stream in the north.
This past December, Gema Martínez-Méndez presented the results of her PhD project at the General Assembly Fall Meeting of the AGU in San Francisco. The conference was attended by more than 12,000 researchers from the Earth Sciences worldwide representing a diverse range of expertise such as geophysics, meteorology, geochemistry, glaciology, oceanography and climatology. Out of over 16,000 research presentations, ICTA researcher Gema Martínez-Méndez's paper was chosen as one of the best student presentations and she was awarded with the 2008 AGU Fall Meeting Outstanding Student Presentation Award.
Maria Jesus Delgado | EurekAlert!
Further reports about: > AGU > Agulhas Current > Atlantic > Climate > Gulf Stream > Indian Ocean > Pacific Ocean > STREAM > global climate changes > global climate warming scenarios > global warming > marine micro-plankton > ocean circulation > southern hemisphere > temperature sensitive isotopes > water leakage
Greenland ice flow likely to speed up: New data assert glaciers move over sediment, which gets more slippery as it gets wetter
17.08.2017 | Swansea University
Climate change: In their old age, trees still accumulate large quantities of carbon
17.08.2017 | Universität Hamburg
Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...
Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...
For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...
An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...
A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
16.08.2017 | Event News
04.08.2017 | Event News
26.07.2017 | Event News
21.08.2017 | Medical Engineering
21.08.2017 | Materials Sciences
21.08.2017 | Life Sciences