Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

A Different Kind of Mine Disaster

14.04.2010
The world's largest antimony mine has become the world's largest laboratory for studying the environmental consequences of escaped antimony -- an element whose environmental and biological properties are still largely a mystery.

"Antimony is an emergent contaminant," said IU Bloomington Ph.D. student Faye Liu, the paper's lead author. "People have not paid enough attention to it."

Used in small quantities, antimony has a wide variety of applications -- from hardening the lead in bullets and improving battery performance to combating malaria.

Little is known about antimony's toxicity, in part because the metalloid element is usually found at low, parts-per-billion concentrations in natural environments. At Xikuangshan, Liu and her colleagues found that aqueous antimony concentrations could be as high 11 parts per million, 1,000 times the antimony levels found in uncontaminated water.

The alarming circumstances at Xikuangshan present an opportunity to understand what happens to antimony, geologically and chemically, when large quantities of it are introduced to the environment. That knowledge will be useful to investigations of antimony contamination near factories and military bases around the world.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and similar regulatory agencies in Europe operate under the assumption that antimony's properties are similar to those of arsenic, another element in antimony's chemical group.

"That will need to change," said IU Bloomington geologist Chen Zhu, Liu's advisor and the project's principal investigator. "We saw that antimony behaves very differently from arsenic -- antimony oxidizes much more quickly than arsenic when exposed."

The vast majority of antimony the scientists isolated at Xikuangshan was of the "V" type, an oxidation state in which the metal has given up five electrons. It is believed V is the least toxic of the three oxidation states of which antimony is capable (I, III and V). It is not known whether antimony-V's relatively diminished toxicity is upended at Xikuangshan by its overwhelming presence.

Land within and around the mining area is used for farming. The drinking water plant for local residents was built in the mining area. Zhu says health problems are common at Xikuangshan, possibly the result of antimony intoxication.

Zhu says he is discussing a possible collaboration with IU School of Medicine toxicologist Jim Klaunig. Researchers would return to Xikuangshan to determine whether the elevated antimony can be tied to acute and chronic health problems among those who live in the vicinity. Another possible study group might be those Chinese who live downstream of Xikuangshan along the Qing River.

As part of their Environmental Geochemistry and Health study, Zhu and scientists from the Chinese Academy of Sciences conducted field work at Xikuangshan in 2007, drawing multiple water samples from 18 different sample sites. Samples were shipped back to Bloomington for atomic fluorescence spectroscopic analysis and to Alberta for inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy analysis. The scientists learned antimony-III was rare, beyond detection or present at trace levels. The near totality of antimony in each water sample was antimony-V.

The Xikuangshan antimony mine is the world's largest. Since antimony mining began there more than 200 years ago, mine production has increased steadily to the present day. Today, Xikuangshan produces 60 percent of the world's antimony.

While Zhu was on sabbatical leave in 2008, Faye Liu was advised by IU Bloomington biogeochemist and inaugural Provost's Professor Lisa Pratt. Zhu and Pratt recently began a joint project to learn more about the biogeochemistry of antimony. The scientists' antimony research complements their concurrent NSF-funded research on arsenic.

IU Bloomington geologists Claudia Johnson and Erika Elswick, both participants in the Environmental Geochemistry and Health study, have also taken seawater samples from the Caribbean. Liu is investigating the samples' antimony content.

Also contributing to the research were University of Alberta environmental toxicologist X. Chris Le and his students, Anthony McKnight-Whitford (Ph.D.) and Yunlong Xia (M.S.), and Chinese Academy of Sciences geochemist Fengchang Wu. The research was supported by the China Scholarship Council and Indiana University.

To speak with Zhu or Liu, please contact David Bricker, University Communications, at 812-856-9035 or brickerd@indiana.edu.

"Antimony speciation and contamination of waters in the Xikuangshan antimony mining and smelting area, China," Environmental Geochemistry and Health, by Faye Liu, X. Chris Le, Anthony McKnight-Whitford, Yunlong Xia, Fengchang Wu, Erika Elswick, Claudia C. Johnson, and Chen Zhu (early access online)

David Bricker | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.indiana.edu

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht PR of MCC: Carbon removal from atmosphere unavoidable for 1.5 degree target
22.05.2018 | Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC) gGmbH

nachricht Monitoring lava lake levels in Congo volcano
16.05.2018 | Seismological Society of America

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

Im Focus: Dozens of binaries from Milky Way's globular clusters could be detectable by LISA

Next-generation gravitational wave detector in space will complement LIGO on Earth

The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...

Im Focus: Entangled atoms shine in unison

A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.

The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Space-like gravity weakens biochemical signals in muscle formation

23.05.2018 | Life Sciences

NIST puts the optical microscope under the microscope to achieve atomic accuracy

23.05.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Magnesium magnificent for plasmonic applications

23.05.2018 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>