Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

80 questions about the southern tip of the world

12.08.2014

The international Antarctic community formulates tomorrow’s challenges to research.

A forward-looking article by 75 leading Antarctic researchers and science managers from 22 countries appeared online in the scientific journal Nature on 6 August.


Base for German Antarctic research: Neumayer Station III near Atka Bight at the Weddell Sea

Photo: Stefan Christmann / Alfred-Wegener-Institut

The so-called “SCAR Horizon Scan” catalogues the 80 most pressing questions to be pursued during the next 20 years of research in the Antarctic and the Southern Ocean. In this interdisciplinary exchange of ideas, three scientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research contributed to working out the topics that now establish the thrust of Antarctic research.

How does the surface of the Earth look below the Antarctic ice, which itself is several kilometres thick? Which structures provide the ice sheet with a foothold and how far could the grounding lines for glaciers retreat, causing an increase in the number of icebergs calved?

The formation of deep water in the Southern Ocean is of global significance; how might this change if, through such processes, increased fresh water is released into the deep sea? How far to the north will hydrodynamics change in the area that drives the currents in the world’s oceans? How quickly will the change in the Antarctic take place and do we know of comparable developments in past eras?

These questions are the ones which biologists ask of geoscientists and oceanographers, for example, enabling them to estimate how not just individual species but also entire populations of flora and fauna would react. In future, concentration is to be focused on the effects of frequently observed combinations of multiple environmental factors as they change, instead of just individual factors. Whether organisms adapt, migrate or die off will, in part, depend upon the tempo of the changes. The survival of the community of living beings and its adaptability are essential to ecosystem outputs.

The smallest of algae in the Southern Ocean, for instance, produce oxygen and extract carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. If there is a change in their rate of photosynthesis, then this influences the concentration of the gases in water and, via the exchange of gases, has an effect on the atmosphere. Climatologists then use the results of detailed studies of these processes, ultimately incorporating them into climate models.

Thus the interactions between the atmosphere, land, water, ice and living beings – as well as potential changes in ecosystem outputs in response to changed environmental conditions – can be depicted in a way that is closer to reality.

Large areas of the Antarctic present major technical and logistics problems to science if scientific endeavour is to achieve the research targets that have been set. Storms and ice floes make it necessary to use icebreakers as research ships when exploring the Southern Ocean. Antarctica is the coldest and stormiest continent on our planet. Individuals have to expend great effort to conduct field work beyond the 64 research stations.

The operation and supply of the stations themselves require extensive polar logistics. That alone is reason enough for the international community of Antarctic researchers to be excellently networked. One example is the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Science (SCAR), which initiated the horizon scan now being published.

“Bundling the future-oriented questions presented by the wide variety of disciplines involved in Antarctic research was itself an exciting process,” reports Prof. Heinrich Miller, geophysicist at the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI). Together with AWI director and SCAR vice president Prof. Karin Lochte and AWI biologist Prof. Julian Gutt, Miller consolidated in a SCAR horizon workshop and three discussion sessions the suggestions presented by the scientific community, thus forming six priorities for Antarctic science. “We have been successful in formulating 80 questions of concern to Antarctic researchers. In ten or twenty years we can determine how far we have come and whether relevance has shifted,” Miller continues.

In the Nature study, the 75 authors formulated the basic prerequisites needed so that international commitment in the Antarctic will continue to correspond to the continent’s significance to the planet as a whole. The core demands here are for sustained and stable funding, access to all of Antarctica throughout the year, application of newly developed technologies, strengthened environmental protection, growth in international cooperation, and improved communication among scientists, logistics experts, those funding research, political decision-makers and the public.

In addition to the questions in the fields of climate science, geology and biology, the authors consider political factors, including the leading role of the Antarctic Treaty. Among other aspects, the Treaty regulates the peaceful use of the area beyond the 60th parallel south and governs free international collaboration in research.

The authors view the prerequisites for protected marine areas; they also observe socioeconomic aspects, genetic resources, and potential future developments in tourism and fishery in the Antarctic. Nor is space research neglected. The clean air over the Antarctic permits an especially clear view of space. Thus the authors point out how the great potentials of Antarctic research can be used in many fields relevant to society.

Original study: Mahlon C. Kennicutt II, Steven L. Chown et al.: “Six Priorities for Antarctic Research“, Comment in Nature 512, 23–25; 7 August 2014 (doi:10.1038/512023a). The catalogue of 80 questions is available there as supplementary material (see pdf file on Nature website: "Antarctic Science Horizon Scan Method and Questions").


Notes for Editors:
Please find printable photos at: http://www.awi.de/index.php?id=7269

Your contact at the Alfred Wegener Institute is Professor Julian Gutt (e-mail to arrange a date for a phone call: Julian.Gutt(at)awi.de).

Your contact at the Dept. of Communications and Media Relations is Dr Folke Mehrtens (Phone: +49 / 471 / 4831-2007; e-mail: medien(at)awi.de).

Follow the Alfred Wegener Institute on Twitter and Facebook. In this way you receive all the current reports as well as information on interesting everyday stories drawn from the work and people of the Institute.

The Alfred Wegener Institute conducts research in the Arctic, Antarctic and oceans of the high and mid-latitudes. It coordinates polar research in Germany and provides major infrastructure to the international scientific community, such as the research icebreaker Polarstern and stations in the Arctic and Antarctica. The Alfred Wegener Institute is one of the 18 research centres of the Helmholtz Association, the largest scientific organisation in Germany.

Ralf Röchert | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft
Further information:
http://www.awi.de

Further reports about: AWI Antarctic Antarctica Helmholtz Helmholtz-Zentrum Horizon Meeresforschung Ocean SCAR atmosphere concentration

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht What would a tsunami in the Mediterranean look like?
27.08.2015 | European Geosciences Union

nachricht NASA sees former Typhoon Atsani's remnants affecting Alaska
27.08.2015 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: What would a tsunami in the Mediterranean look like?

A team of European researchers have developed a model to simulate the impact of tsunamis generated by earthquakes and applied it to the Eastern Mediterranean. The results show how tsunami waves could hit and inundate coastal areas in southern Italy and Greece. The study is published today (27 August) in Ocean Science, an open access journal of the European Geosciences Union (EGU).

Though not as frequent as in the Pacific and Indian oceans, tsunamis also occur in the Mediterranean, mainly due to earthquakes generated when the African...

Im Focus: Self-healing landscape: landslides after earthquake

In mountainous regions earthquakes often cause strong landslides, which can be exacerbated by heavy rain. However, after an initial increase, the frequency of these mass wasting events, often enormous and dangerous, declines, in fact independently of meteorological events and aftershocks.

These new findings are presented by a German-Franco-Japanese team of geoscientists in the current issue of the journal Geology, under the lead of the GFZ...

Im Focus: FIC Proteins Send Bacteria Into Hibernation

Bacteria do not cease to amaze us with their survival strategies. A research team from the University of Basel's Biozentrum has now discovered how bacteria enter a sleep mode using a so-called FIC toxin. In the current issue of “Cell Reports”, the scientists describe the mechanism of action and also explain why their discovery provides new insights into the evolution of pathogens.

For many poisons there are antidotes which neutralize their toxic effect. Toxin-antitoxin systems in bacteria work in a similar manner: As long as a cell...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer IPA develops prototype of intelligent care cart

It comes when called, bringing care utensils with it and recording how they are used: Fraunhofer IPA is developing an intelligent care cart that provides care staff with physical and informational support in their day-to-day work. The scientists at Fraunhofer IPA have now completed a first prototype. In doing so, they are continuing in their efforts to improve working conditions in the care sector and are developing solutions designed to address the challenges of demographic change.

Technical assistance systems can improve the difficult working conditions in residential nursing homes and hospitals by helping the staff in their work and...

Im Focus: A Grand Voyage for Tiny Organisms

Climate and Ecosystem Change in the Mediterranean

Since the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 many hundreds of marine animal and plant species from the Red Sea have invaded the eastern Mediterranean, leading...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Networking conference in Heidelberg for outstanding mathematicians and computer scientists

20.08.2015 | Event News

Scientists meet in Münster for the world’s largest Chitin und Chitosan Conference

20.08.2015 | Event News

Large agribusiness management strategies

19.08.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

Cells cling and spiral 'like vines' in first 3-D tissue scaffold for plants

27.08.2015 | Life Sciences

Hypoallergenic parks: Coming soon?

27.08.2015 | Health and Medicine

Stiffer breast tissue in obese women promotes tumors

27.08.2015 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>