Measuring emissions precisely and on the go: Sven Rademacher will receive the first Hugo-Geiger prize for his infrared optical filter photometer. Second prize goes to Harry Kummer for his new heat exchanger coating system. In third place: Anna Marie Kruspe for her automated world music classification process.
Reliably measuring air quality – on the go
In October 2008, environmental zones were introduced in many of Germany‘s cities. Vehicles with red discs have since been banned from city centers. Still, emission loads in cities and major population centers continue to be too high. The reason for this is the fact that pollutants don‘t just come from traffic, but also from heating systems, power stations, industrial plants and from the natural environment. To monitor compliance with the legal regulations, the authorities need solid measurement data - recorded precisely and flexibly. So far, this data has generally come from stationary measuring locations. But because they are not extensively distributed, the values do not fully reflect the actual air composition. Sven Rademacher developed the mobile, infrared optical filter photometer as part of this Master‘s thesis at the Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measuring Technology IPM in Freiburg. Unlike commercially available systems, it detects several gases at the same time. What‘s more, the device‘s position can be fixed using GALILEO, the European satellite navigation system, which allows for the measurement data to be precisely localized. This in turn permits conclusions to be drawn on the sources of the pollution and specific countermeasures to be initiated, imposing local traffic restrictions for example. An online air pollutant chart is to make the measurements transparent for everyone.
Making thermally driven air-conditioning systems more economical
In industrialized countries, high constructions with large glass fronts, will be part of the cityscape. These buildings, however, require a great deal of energy for heating and cooling. Experts believe that the demand only for cooling will triple by 2020. During summer, air-conditioning of rooms can be realised more efficiently by using thermally-driven adsorption cooling units. Here water, as a non-poisonous coolant, silica gel and zeolites as adsorption materials are used. Researchers must dramatically improve these technologies until they are economical and efficient and therefore suitable for daily use. In his diploma thesis at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE in Freiburg, Harry Kummer developed a highly promising coating system for the use on heat exchangers integrated in these adsorption chillers. His coating system is flexible and suitable for new and optimized adsorption materials. It permits a higher power density of the units through faster adsorption cycles, making it possible to construct these units in a more economical and compact manner. There is a patent pending for the coating process, which is to be further optimized in a large-scale demonstration unit.
Automatically classifying “world music”
The music market is in a state of flux: Since the era of digital formats, music is being increasingly offered online to a globalized market. Automated processes help genres to be reliably classified and music archives to be managed affordably and efficiently. For that to happen, music databases must be pre-processed. Commercial solutions are already in place for standard music genres such as rock and pop, but not for world music. In her thesis at the Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology IDMT in Ilmenau, Anna Marie Kruspe developed an automated classification process for non-Western music genres. Using this process, she achieves an accuracy of 70 percent. This is equivalent to the existing systems for classifying Western music. So in future, “world music” can also be integrated into the international music market - benefitting both composers and consumers alike. The thesis emerged as part of »GlobalMusic2one«, a project supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research.
Sven Rademacher | Fraunhofer Research News
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Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
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Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.
The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....
An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...
Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...
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26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy