Measuring emissions precisely and on the go: Sven Rademacher will receive the first Hugo-Geiger prize for his infrared optical filter photometer. Second prize goes to Harry Kummer for his new heat exchanger coating system. In third place: Anna Marie Kruspe for her automated world music classification process.
Reliably measuring air quality – on the go
In October 2008, environmental zones were introduced in many of Germany‘s cities. Vehicles with red discs have since been banned from city centers. Still, emission loads in cities and major population centers continue to be too high. The reason for this is the fact that pollutants don‘t just come from traffic, but also from heating systems, power stations, industrial plants and from the natural environment. To monitor compliance with the legal regulations, the authorities need solid measurement data - recorded precisely and flexibly. So far, this data has generally come from stationary measuring locations. But because they are not extensively distributed, the values do not fully reflect the actual air composition. Sven Rademacher developed the mobile, infrared optical filter photometer as part of this Master‘s thesis at the Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measuring Technology IPM in Freiburg. Unlike commercially available systems, it detects several gases at the same time. What‘s more, the device‘s position can be fixed using GALILEO, the European satellite navigation system, which allows for the measurement data to be precisely localized. This in turn permits conclusions to be drawn on the sources of the pollution and specific countermeasures to be initiated, imposing local traffic restrictions for example. An online air pollutant chart is to make the measurements transparent for everyone.
Making thermally driven air-conditioning systems more economical
In industrialized countries, high constructions with large glass fronts, will be part of the cityscape. These buildings, however, require a great deal of energy for heating and cooling. Experts believe that the demand only for cooling will triple by 2020. During summer, air-conditioning of rooms can be realised more efficiently by using thermally-driven adsorption cooling units. Here water, as a non-poisonous coolant, silica gel and zeolites as adsorption materials are used. Researchers must dramatically improve these technologies until they are economical and efficient and therefore suitable for daily use. In his diploma thesis at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE in Freiburg, Harry Kummer developed a highly promising coating system for the use on heat exchangers integrated in these adsorption chillers. His coating system is flexible and suitable for new and optimized adsorption materials. It permits a higher power density of the units through faster adsorption cycles, making it possible to construct these units in a more economical and compact manner. There is a patent pending for the coating process, which is to be further optimized in a large-scale demonstration unit.
Automatically classifying “world music”
The music market is in a state of flux: Since the era of digital formats, music is being increasingly offered online to a globalized market. Automated processes help genres to be reliably classified and music archives to be managed affordably and efficiently. For that to happen, music databases must be pre-processed. Commercial solutions are already in place for standard music genres such as rock and pop, but not for world music. In her thesis at the Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology IDMT in Ilmenau, Anna Marie Kruspe developed an automated classification process for non-Western music genres. Using this process, she achieves an accuracy of 70 percent. This is equivalent to the existing systems for classifying Western music. So in future, “world music” can also be integrated into the international music market - benefitting both composers and consumers alike. The thesis emerged as part of »GlobalMusic2one«, a project supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research.
Sven Rademacher | Fraunhofer Research News
Eduard Arzt receives highest award from German Materials Society
21.09.2017 | INM - Leibniz-Institut für Neue Materialien gGmbH
Six German-Russian Research Groups Receive Three Years of Funding
12.09.2017 | Hermann von Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems Holding GmbH about commercial use of a multi-well tissue plate for automated and reliable tissue engineering & drug testing.
MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems...
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21.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.09.2017 | Life Sciences
21.09.2017 | Health and Medicine