Professor Gobert, of the School of Law, explains: 'Events over the past decade have heightened awareness of the harm that can be caused by companies and other organisations carrying out activities in a reckless or negligent manner.
Corporate misconduct can result in economic loss on a massive scale (eg Enron), as well as physical injuries and even death (like the Concord crash in France and rail accidents at Southall, Paddington and Hatfield in the UK). Failed prosecutions have highlighted the inadequacy of traditional criminal law for coping with corporate fault.'
'In response, new laws have been enacted to address the problem of corporate wrongdoing in many European countries. This includes the UK with the Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007, as well as France, Italy, the Netherlands, Austria and Finland. Yet other countries, such as Germany, continue to adhere to an administrative law approach where companies cannot be prosecuted for serious criminal offences.'
Professor Gobert continues: 'Although in our new world of globalisation, there is significant interest on the part of NGOs, trade unions, governments and international businesses in how alleged corporate criminal liability should be dealt with, there is little published work in this area. To the best of our knowledge, no book that undertaken a comparative analysis of corporate criminal liability in Europe. The overall purpose of this British Academy research grant is to produce a book comparing how the laws of different European jurisdictions hold organisations to account for serious harm and how offences are investigated, prosecuted and sentenced.'
Victoria Bartholomew | alfa
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Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...
Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...
For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...
An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...
A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
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