Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

How to best protect children in side-impact crashes

13.09.2005


Researchers from The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia say restraints, other passengers in rear seat reduce risk



Researchers at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia will present today a series of findings aimed at enhancing protection for children in side-impact car crashes at the Scientific Conference of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM). The findings demonstrate that children fare better in side-impact crashes if they are restrained and if they are seated with other occupants in the back seat, and they emphasize the protective benefits of high back booster seats in these crashes for 4-to 8-year-olds.

The original findings are based on real-world crash data from Partners for Child Passenger Safety (PCPS), a research partnership of Children’s Hospital and State Farm Insurance Companies. In addition to the new findings, PCPS research being presented at the conference confirms that children riding in passenger cars and light truck vehicles, such as SUVs, are at increased risk of injury in a side-impact crash when their vehicle is struck by a light truck.


"Side impacts are the second most common fatal crash type after frontal crashes and require focused attention from the safety community," says Kristy Arbogast, Ph.D., Associate Director of Field Engineering, TraumaLink, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. "Most importantly, we need to focus on the most vulnerable occupants-- children."

According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 42 percent of child fatalities to rear-seated children ages 0 to 8 years occur in side-impact collisions. Overall, side-impact crashes kill about 300 American children under age 8 each year and result in more severe injuries at lower crash severities than frontal collisions.

The Children’s Hospital researchers hope the new findings provide NHTSA and the auto industry with information that can be used to enhance performance testing and safety design that take into account the unique safety needs of child occupants. The recently passed SAFETEA (Safe, Accountable, Flexible, and Efficient Transportation Equity) Act of 2005 requires NHTSA to upgrade its side-impact standard by July 1, 2008.

"In addition to providing new insights into child occupant safety in side-impact crashes, our findings demonstrate the effectiveness of using age- and size- appropriate restraints and rear seating in preventing injuries in this crash direction," said Kristy Arbogast. "Correct restraint use and rear-seating for children, this is the message we need to convey to parents."

Key findings from the PCPS research study that were presented at the AAAM Conference:

"Effectiveness of High Back and Backless Belt-Positioning Booster Seats in Side impact crashes"

  • Belt-positioning booster seats provided a 58 percent overall reduction in risk of injury to 4-to 8-year-olds in side-impact crashes as compared with seat belts alone. (These findings support prior PCPS research, which shows booster seats to be 59 percent effective in reducing injury risk to 4-to 8-year-olds in crashes of all impact directions.)
  • The risk reduction provided by booster seats in side-impact crashes varied by booster seat type: 4-to 8-year-olds riding in high back booster seats were at a 70 percent reduction in injury risk, while those in backless boosters did not experience a statistically significant risk reduction as compared with seat belts alone.
  • However, both types of booster seats provided significant protection from "seat belt syndrome" injuries to the internal abdominal organs and lumbar spine. Most of the injuries to children seated in backless booster seats were head injuries.
  • Possible explanations for non-significant reduction in injury risk for backless booster seats are that parents may be less likely to use to use the shoulder belt- positioner that comes with backless booster seats and that high back boosters have a contoured back that may better contain the occupant in side-impact crashes.

"Effect of Increased Rear Row Occupancy on Injury to Seat Belt Restrained Children in Side impact Crashes"

  • Seat belt restrained children aged 4 to 15 who were riding in the rear row of passenger cars reduced their risk of injury by up to 58 percent in side-impact crashes if they were riding with another seat-belted passenger in the rear row. The data suggests that development of a restraint system that limits side-to-side motion would be effective in reducing injury during side-impact crashes.
  • Initial analyses showed that head injuries were the most frequent injury in all seating positions, with struck-side and center-seated occupants having similar risks of injury and non-struck side occupants at the lowest risk of injury.

"Effect of Vehicle Incompatibility on Child Occupant Injury Risk"

  • Children riding in passenger cars and light trucks are at a significantly greater risk for serious injury when struck by a light truck than by a passenger car and when seated on the struck side of a side-impact crash.
  • Overall risk for serious injury was more than twice as high for children sitting on the struck side of the vehicle than for children seated in the center and non-struck side seating positions in side-impact crashes.

For more information about safe practices for restraining children when traveling in a motor vehicle, including interactive videos on how to choose and install a child safety seat, visit www.chop.edu/carseat.

Dana Mortensen | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.chop.edu
http://www.aaam.org

More articles from Automotive Engineering:

nachricht Improved Performance thanks to Reduced Weight
24.07.2017 | Technische Universität Chemnitz

nachricht New Headlamp Dimension: Fully Adaptive Light Distribution in Real Time
29.06.2017 | Universität Stuttgart

All articles from Automotive Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New gene catalog of ocean microbiome reveals surprises

18.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Astrophysicists explain the mysterious behavior of cosmic rays

18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

AI implications: Engineer's model lays groundwork for machine-learning device

18.08.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>