Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Urine and diesel reduce toxic emissions in traffic

06.09.2005


As of October 1 this year the EU requires that emissions of nitrogen oxides be reduced by 30 percent in trucks and 50 percent in diesel-powered cars. In 2008 these regulations will be become more stringent in Europe, and even more so in the US. The technical solution chosen by nearly all automakers to meet the requirements was originally developed by the Lund University in Sweden. Now these researchers are working on methods to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions even more.

Emissions of nitrogen oxides from heavy trucks account for 40 percent of nitrogen oxide emissions in traffic. This is seen as a major environmental problem. Thanks to the so-called three-way catalytic converter, exhaust from gasoline-powered passenger cars is relatively clean. On the other hand, it has been more problematic to clean up the exhaust from diesel-powered vehicles.

To come to grips with the problem, scientists at Lund University have developed the so-called Urea Method. This entails injecting a urine substance, NH2(CO)NH2, into the exhaust fumes in a catalytic converter in the exhaust pipe. This is the method that is now to be used.



“The urine substance is converted to ammonia, which reduces the nitrogen oxide to innocuous nitrogen gas, which occurs naturally in the air. It also reduces the amount of smaller, but harmful, residual particles such as diesel soot, carbon, and hydrocarbons,” says Ingemar Odenbrand, professor of chemical engineering and one of the prime movers in the project.

For the last few years the research team has been working instead with a method of NOx storage, which reduces emission levels even further. This method is expected to become the future standard.

The method is based on storing nitrogen oxides, NOx, in the catalytic converter and successively reducing them by repeated injections of hydrocarbons, often diesel fuel, every 60 or 90 seconds. The hydrocarbons are broken down into smaller hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, which then reduces NOx to plain nitrogen.

“In our latest experiments we have managed to reduce emissions from 7 g of NOx per kWh to 3 g,” says Ingemar Odenbrand.

Using the full-scale exhaust and engine system constructed at LTH, the researchers are busy tweaking the variations in temperature, flow, and consistency that arise in authentic exhaust. The aim is to meet the environmental requirements that will take effect in the US from 2008, a reduction of 94 percent from today’s levels. That same year Europe will ratchet up its requirements to 2 g, a further reduction from the 3.5 g taking effect this autumn.

This work is being done in association with Volvo, Scania, and the catalytic converter manufacturer Johnson Matthey, as well as the Chalmers Institute of Technology in Göteborg when it comes to modeling and lab trials. Today Lund University is nearly the only actor, apart from the EPA in the US, publishing studies in the field with trials run on authentic exhaust.

Kristina Lindgärde | alfa
Further information:
http://www.lth.se
http://www.vr.se

More articles from Automotive Engineering:

nachricht EU-LIVE launches: European researchers and manufacturers developing smart urban light vehicles
22.06.2015 | Kompetenzzentrum - Das virtuelle Fahrzeug Forschungsgesellschaft mbH

nachricht Cost-efficiency of plug-in hybrids calculated a thousand times faster
22.04.2015 | Chalmers University of Technology

All articles from Automotive Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Glaciers melt faster than ever

Glacier decline in the first decade of the 21st century has reached a historical record, since the onset of direct observations. Glacier melt is a global phenomenon and will continue even without further climate change. This is shown in the latest study by the World Glacier Monitoring Service under the lead of the University of Zurich, Switzerland.

The World Glacier Monitoring Service, domiciled at the University of Zurich, has compiled worldwide data on glacier changes for more than 120 years. Together...

Im Focus: Quantum Matter Stuck in Unrest

Using ultracold atoms trapped in light crystals, scientists from the MPQ, LMU, and the Weizmann Institute observe a novel state of matter that never thermalizes.

What happens if one mixes cold and hot water? After some initial dynamics, one is left with lukewarm water—the system has thermalized to a new thermal...

Im Focus: On the crest of the wave: Electronics on a time scale shorter than a cycle of light

Physicists from Regensburg and Marburg, Germany have succeeded in taking a slow-motion movie of speeding electrons in a solid driven by a strong light wave. In the process, they have unraveled a novel quantum phenomenon, which will be reported in the forthcoming edition of Nature.

The advent of ever faster electronics featuring clock rates up to the multiple-gigahertz range has revolutionized our day-to-day life. Researchers and...

Im Focus: Superfast fluorescence sets new speed record

Plasmonic device has speed and efficiency to serve optical computers

Researchers have developed an ultrafast light-emitting device that can flip on and off 90 billion times a second and could form the basis of optical computing.

Im Focus: Unlocking the rice immune system

Joint BioEnergy Institute study identifies bacterial protein that is key to protecting rice against bacterial blight

A bacterial signal that when recognized by rice plants enables the plants to resist a devastating blight disease has been identified by a multi-national team...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

3rd Euro Bio-inspired - International Conference and Exhibition on Bio-inspired Materials

23.07.2015 | Event News

Clash of Realities – International Conference on the Art, Technology and Theory of Digital Games

10.07.2015 | Event News

World Conference on Regenerative Medicine in Leipzig: Last chance to submit abstracts until 2 July

25.06.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

“Seeing” molecular interactions could give boost to organic electronics

03.08.2015 | Materials Sciences

Stroke: news about platelets

03.08.2015 | Life Sciences

Molecular Spies to Fight Cancer - Procedure for improving tumor diagnosis successfully tested

03.08.2015 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>