Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Urine and diesel reduce toxic emissions in traffic

06.09.2005


As of October 1 this year the EU requires that emissions of nitrogen oxides be reduced by 30 percent in trucks and 50 percent in diesel-powered cars. In 2008 these regulations will be become more stringent in Europe, and even more so in the US. The technical solution chosen by nearly all automakers to meet the requirements was originally developed by the Lund University in Sweden. Now these researchers are working on methods to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions even more.

Emissions of nitrogen oxides from heavy trucks account for 40 percent of nitrogen oxide emissions in traffic. This is seen as a major environmental problem. Thanks to the so-called three-way catalytic converter, exhaust from gasoline-powered passenger cars is relatively clean. On the other hand, it has been more problematic to clean up the exhaust from diesel-powered vehicles.

To come to grips with the problem, scientists at Lund University have developed the so-called Urea Method. This entails injecting a urine substance, NH2(CO)NH2, into the exhaust fumes in a catalytic converter in the exhaust pipe. This is the method that is now to be used.



“The urine substance is converted to ammonia, which reduces the nitrogen oxide to innocuous nitrogen gas, which occurs naturally in the air. It also reduces the amount of smaller, but harmful, residual particles such as diesel soot, carbon, and hydrocarbons,” says Ingemar Odenbrand, professor of chemical engineering and one of the prime movers in the project.

For the last few years the research team has been working instead with a method of NOx storage, which reduces emission levels even further. This method is expected to become the future standard.

The method is based on storing nitrogen oxides, NOx, in the catalytic converter and successively reducing them by repeated injections of hydrocarbons, often diesel fuel, every 60 or 90 seconds. The hydrocarbons are broken down into smaller hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, which then reduces NOx to plain nitrogen.

“In our latest experiments we have managed to reduce emissions from 7 g of NOx per kWh to 3 g,” says Ingemar Odenbrand.

Using the full-scale exhaust and engine system constructed at LTH, the researchers are busy tweaking the variations in temperature, flow, and consistency that arise in authentic exhaust. The aim is to meet the environmental requirements that will take effect in the US from 2008, a reduction of 94 percent from today’s levels. That same year Europe will ratchet up its requirements to 2 g, a further reduction from the 3.5 g taking effect this autumn.

This work is being done in association with Volvo, Scania, and the catalytic converter manufacturer Johnson Matthey, as well as the Chalmers Institute of Technology in Göteborg when it comes to modeling and lab trials. Today Lund University is nearly the only actor, apart from the EPA in the US, publishing studies in the field with trials run on authentic exhaust.

Kristina Lindgärde | alfa
Further information:
http://www.lth.se
http://www.vr.se

More articles from Automotive Engineering:

nachricht Cost-efficiency of plug-in hybrids calculated a thousand times faster
22.04.2015 | Chalmers University of Technology

nachricht Newly developed diamond transistor expected to reduce energy consumption in automobiles
20.02.2015 | Waseda University

All articles from Automotive Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Basel Physicists Develop Efficient Method of Signal Transmission from Nanocomponents

Physicists have developed an innovative method that could enable the efficient use of nanocomponents in electronic circuits. To achieve this, they have developed a layout in which a nanocomponent is connected to two electrical conductors, which uncouple the electrical signal in a highly efficient manner. The scientists at the Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel have published their results in the scientific journal “Nature Communications” together with their colleagues from ETH Zurich.

Electronic components are becoming smaller and smaller. Components measuring just a few nanometers – the size of around ten atoms – are already being produced...

Im Focus: IoT-based Advanced Automobile Parking Navigation System

Development and implementation of an advanced automobile parking navigation platform for parking services

To fulfill the requirements of the industry, PolyU researchers developed the Advanced Automobile Parking Navigation Platform, which includes smart devices,...

Im Focus: First electrical car ferry in the world in operation in Norway now

  • Siemens delivers electric propulsion system and charging stations with lithium-ion batteries charged from hydro power
  • Ferry only uses 150 kilowatt hours (kWh) per route and reduces cost of fuel by 60 percent
  • Milestone on the road to operating emission-free ferries

The world's first electrical car and passenger ferry powered by batteries has entered service in Norway. The ferry only uses 150 kWh per route, which...

Im Focus: Into the ice – RV Polarstern opens the arctic season by setting course for Spitsbergen

On Tuesday, 19 May 2015 the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its home port in Bremerhaven, setting a course for the Arctic. Led by Dr Ilka Peeken from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) a team of 53 researchers from 11 countries will investigate the effects of climate change in the Arctic, from the surface ice floes down to the seafloor.

RV Polarstern will enter the sea-ice zone north of Spitsbergen. Covering two shallow regions on their way to deeper waters, the scientists on board will focus...

Im Focus: Gel filled with nanosponges cleans up MRSA infections

Nanoengineers at the University of California, San Diego developed a gel filled with toxin-absorbing nanosponges that could lead to an effective treatment for skin and wound infections caused by MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), an antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This "nanosponge-hydrogel" minimized the growth of skin lesions on mice infected with MRSA - without the use of antibiotics. The researchers recently published their findings online in Advanced Materials.

To make the nanosponge-hydrogel, the team mixed nanosponges, which are nanoparticles that absorb dangerous toxins produced by MRSA, E. coli and other...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International symposium: trends in spatial analysis and modelling for a more sustainable land use

20.05.2015 | Event News

15th conference of the International Association of Colloid and Interface Scientists

18.05.2015 | Event News

EHFG 2015: Securing health in Europe. Balancing priorities, sharing responsibilities

12.05.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

Analytical lamps monitor air pollution in cities

26.05.2015 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

DNA double helix does double duty in assembling arrays of nanoparticles

26.05.2015 | Life Sciences

Turn That Defect Upside Down

26.05.2015 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>