Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Urine and diesel reduce toxic emissions in traffic

06.09.2005


As of October 1 this year the EU requires that emissions of nitrogen oxides be reduced by 30 percent in trucks and 50 percent in diesel-powered cars. In 2008 these regulations will be become more stringent in Europe, and even more so in the US. The technical solution chosen by nearly all automakers to meet the requirements was originally developed by the Lund University in Sweden. Now these researchers are working on methods to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions even more.

Emissions of nitrogen oxides from heavy trucks account for 40 percent of nitrogen oxide emissions in traffic. This is seen as a major environmental problem. Thanks to the so-called three-way catalytic converter, exhaust from gasoline-powered passenger cars is relatively clean. On the other hand, it has been more problematic to clean up the exhaust from diesel-powered vehicles.

To come to grips with the problem, scientists at Lund University have developed the so-called Urea Method. This entails injecting a urine substance, NH2(CO)NH2, into the exhaust fumes in a catalytic converter in the exhaust pipe. This is the method that is now to be used.



“The urine substance is converted to ammonia, which reduces the nitrogen oxide to innocuous nitrogen gas, which occurs naturally in the air. It also reduces the amount of smaller, but harmful, residual particles such as diesel soot, carbon, and hydrocarbons,” says Ingemar Odenbrand, professor of chemical engineering and one of the prime movers in the project.

For the last few years the research team has been working instead with a method of NOx storage, which reduces emission levels even further. This method is expected to become the future standard.

The method is based on storing nitrogen oxides, NOx, in the catalytic converter and successively reducing them by repeated injections of hydrocarbons, often diesel fuel, every 60 or 90 seconds. The hydrocarbons are broken down into smaller hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, which then reduces NOx to plain nitrogen.

“In our latest experiments we have managed to reduce emissions from 7 g of NOx per kWh to 3 g,” says Ingemar Odenbrand.

Using the full-scale exhaust and engine system constructed at LTH, the researchers are busy tweaking the variations in temperature, flow, and consistency that arise in authentic exhaust. The aim is to meet the environmental requirements that will take effect in the US from 2008, a reduction of 94 percent from today’s levels. That same year Europe will ratchet up its requirements to 2 g, a further reduction from the 3.5 g taking effect this autumn.

This work is being done in association with Volvo, Scania, and the catalytic converter manufacturer Johnson Matthey, as well as the Chalmers Institute of Technology in Göteborg when it comes to modeling and lab trials. Today Lund University is nearly the only actor, apart from the EPA in the US, publishing studies in the field with trials run on authentic exhaust.

Kristina Lindgärde | alfa
Further information:
http://www.lth.se
http://www.vr.se

More articles from Automotive Engineering:

nachricht Automated driving: Steering without limits
05.02.2016 | FZI Forschungszentrum Informatik am Karlsruher Institut für Technologie

nachricht Pioneering joining technology for high performance hybrid automotive parts
18.12.2015 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Lasertechnik ILT

All articles from Automotive Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nuclear Pores Captured on Film

Using an ultra fast-scanning atomic force microscope, a team of researchers from the University of Basel has filmed “living” nuclear pore complexes at work for the first time. Nuclear pores are molecular machines that control the traffic entering or exiting the cell nucleus. In their article published in Nature Nanotechnology, the researchers explain how the passage of unwanted molecules is prevented by rapidly moving molecular “tentacles” inside the pore.

Using high-speed AFM, Roderick Lim, Argovia Professor at the Biozentrum and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute of the University of Basel, has not only directly...

Im Focus: 2+1 is Not Always 3 - In the microworld unity is not always strength

If a person pushes a broken-down car alone, there is a certain effect. If another person helps, the result is the sum of their efforts. If two micro-particles are pushing another microparticle, however, the resulting effect may not necessarily be the sum their efforts. A recent study published in Nature Communications, measured this odd effect that scientists call “many body.”

In the microscopic world, where the modern miniaturized machines at the new frontiers of technology operate, as long as we are in the presence of two...

Im Focus: Tiny microbots that can clean up water

Researchers from the Max Planck Institute Stuttgart have developed self-propelled tiny ‘microbots’ that can remove lead or organic pollution from contaminated water.

Working with colleagues in Barcelona and Singapore, Samuel Sánchez’s group used graphene oxide to make their microscale motors, which are able to adsorb lead...

Im Focus: ORNL researchers discover new state of water molecule

Neutron scattering and computational modeling have revealed unique and unexpected behavior of water molecules under extreme confinement that is unmatched by any known gas, liquid or solid states.

In a paper published in Physical Review Letters, researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory describe a new tunneling state of...

Im Focus: Bionic Lightweight Design researchers of the Alfred Wegener Institute at Hannover Messe 2016

Honeycomb structures as the basic building block for industrial applications presented using holo pyramid

Researchers of the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) will introduce their latest developments in the field of bionic lightweight design at Hannover Messe from 25...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

The “AC21 International Forum 2016” is About to Begin

27.04.2016 | Event News

Soft switching combines efficiency and improved electro-magnetic compatibility

15.04.2016 | Event News

Grid-Supportive Buildings Give Boost to Renewable Energy Integration

12.04.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum Logical Operations Realized with Single Photons

03.05.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

Discovery of a fundamental limit to the evolution of the genetic code

03.05.2016 | Life Sciences

Cavitation aggressive intensity greatly enhanced using pressure at bubble collapse region

03.05.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>