Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

A cut above the Eiffel Tower: Architects are studying constructions from Russian engineer Shukov

15.09.2011
Vladimir G. Shukhov was one of the most ingenious engineers of the 19th and early 20th centuries.

He developed a number of revolutionary construction techniques including the first suspended roof structure. The Russian engineer built lattice towers up to 150 meters high using rows of twisted, intersecting bars – an extremely efficient, stable and above all elegant construction method. An international research team is now investigating the structural behavior, construction and current condition of these works. Andrij Kutnyi from Technische Universität München (TUM) was the first scientist to gain access to the 100-year-old, Shukhov-built lighthouses in the Black Sea.


Lighthouse in the estuary of Dnjepr, built by Vladimir G. Schuchov in 1911. Andrij Kutnyi / Technical University of Munich


Lighthouse in the estuary of Dnjepr, built by Vladimir G. Schuchov in 1911. Andrij Kutnyi / Technical University of Munich

During the two and half weeks spent on a tiny man-made island with two lighthouse keepers, Andrij Kutnyi had to deal with poisonous snakes and watch his drinking water supplies dwindle as temperatures soared. Yet the architectural historian took it all in his stride. He was, after all, one of the first scientists to experience firsthand an early modernist architectural masterpiece – exactly one hundred years after it had been built. The 70-meter high lighthouse and its 25-meter high front beacon still guide ships along the range line from the Black Sea to the Dnieper River and into the Ukraine. Until five years ago, the lighthouse was part of a military exclusion zone. Ukrainian-born Kutnyi was granted access just in time for the lighthouse’s anniversary.

The towers’ steel lattices sweep elegantly up to the sky, easily supporting the lantern rooms despite their delicate appearance. The lattice design was invented by the Russian engineer Vladimir G. Shukhov (1853-1939) in what proved to be an unprecedented move in construction history. To create his structures, Shukhov arranged two parallel groups of rods in a circle and twisted these against each other to create the hyperboloid shape and “waist” – the same shape of cooling towers today.

This apparently simple arrangement has a number of key benefits. Firstly, it only requires minimum amounts of material. For a 350-meter radio mast in Moscow, which ultimately was never built, Shukhov planned to use just 2,000 tons of steel. In contrast, around 10,000 tons of steel went into the 300-meter Eiffel Tower. Secondly, it creates a lightweight structure that is surprisingly stable. The opposing curves in the lattice structure enable it to bear major loads.

Seven years after the inauguration of the Eiffel Tower at the World’s Fair in Paris, Shukhov presented the first of his towers at the All-Russia Exhibition in Nizhny Novgorod. This was followed by a veritable building boom in water towers, oil and gas tanks and transmission towers. Due to the high strength offered by Shukhov’s technique, Russia and the US used it to build radio towers on battle ships. And the structures are still in use today. The recently completed Canton Tower in Chinese city of Guangzhou, which – at 600 meters – is the sixth highest building in the world, is a hyperboloid structure. “Shukhov invented one of the most intelligent and effective design principles in the history of steel construction,” explains TUM architect Kutnyi. And it was not the only revolutionary idea to come from Shukhov, the chief engineer of a major construction company. He also developed suspended roof structures, arch structures and grid shell structures. In many cases, these designs were not used again until the second half of the 20th century. The roofs of Munich’s Olympic stadium are a prime example. “Shukhov is one of the most important pioneers in lightweight construction,” reports Matthias Beckh from the TUM Department of Structural Design. Yet his structural work has been all but forgotten in the West. The lighthouses in the Black Sea are at most familiar landmarks to ships’ captains.

Therefore, the first aim of the interdisciplinary research project, which brings together scientists from the University of Innsbruck and ETH Zurich, is to identify all of Shukhov’s works. The researchers have already found numerous previously unknown projects. Many towers are in an extreme state of disrepair and in danger of collapsing. Yet the extent of the damage also reveals just how strong these structures are. One transmission tower was still standing although 16 of the 40 vertical bars at the base were missing. In this case, the engineers were able to kick-start renovation work. Other structures have already been destroyed. Recently, a Shukhov structure that the researchers had only just discovered was dismantled. The engineers’ hope that their research will raise awareness of these structures and increase the chances of them being preserved.

In a second phase, architectural historians at TUM intend to measure and document the structures and reconstruct the engineering processes. On his first visit to the Dnieper lighthouse, Andrij Kutnyi discovered that the construction workers used a method that dates back to medieval times. The workers made notches in the individual pieces to number them before they were raised and assembled – a technique very similar to the methods used by medieval carpenters. “This numbering is very valuable information for us. We can use it to determine the sequence in which the tower was built,” enthuses Kutnyi. The engineers already know that this tower is particularly special. At 70 meters, it is the highest tower to have just one “waist”, as Shukhov built his other towers in several sections, each a hyperboloid shape in its own right.

The structural engineers at TUM will also be investigating the individual factors that make the towers so stable. This includes examining the parameters that determine the shape of a hyperboloid, as well as the interplay between geometry and load-bearing characteristics. The researchers plan to test models of the towers in TUM’s wind tunnel. “Nobody knows how much of an impact wind really has on these complex structures,” explains Matthias Beckh. “This makes it difficult to apply conventional engineering standards.” The research project could lay the foundations for a renaissance in Shukhov’s timelessly elegant structures – making them ideal candidates for new transmission towers that will be needed as the world moves towards more renewable energy sources.

The project is entitled “Secrets of early modernist architecture – Shukhov’s strategies for efficient steel construction” (Konstruktionswissen der frühen Moderne – Schuchovs Strategien des sparsamen Eisenbaus) and brings together researchers from the Institute of Building History, Building Archaeology and Heritage Conservation (Prof. Manfred Schuller) and the Department of Structural Design (Prof. Rainer Barthel) at TUM as well as engineers from the Architectural Archive of Innsbruck University (Prof. Rainer Graefe) and the Institute of Historic Building Research and Conservation at ETH Zurich (Prof. Uta Hassler). The participants are cooperating with the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Shukhov Tower Foundation in Moscow and several Russian universities. The project is supported by the German Research Foundation’s D-A-CH program, the Austrian Science Fund and the Swiss National Science Foundation.

Contact:
Dipl.-Ing. Matthias Beckh
Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Technical University of Munich)
Department of Structural Design (Prof. Rainer Barthel)
Tel.: +49 89 289 23157
E-Mail: m.beckh@lrz.tu-muenchen.de
www.lt.arch.tu-muenchen.de
Dr. Andrij Kutnyi
Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Technical University of Munich)
Institute of Building History, Building Archaeology and Heritage Conservation (Prof. Manfred Schuller)
E-Mail: andrij.kutnyi@lrz.tum.de
www.baufo.ar.tum.de

Dr. Ulrich Marsch | TU München
Further information:
http://www.tum.de

More articles from Architecture and Construction:

nachricht Flexible protection for "smart" building and façade components
30.11.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung ISC

nachricht Healthy living without damp and mold
16.11.2016 | Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft

All articles from Architecture and Construction >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Closing the carbon loop

08.12.2016 | Life Sciences

Applicability of dynamic facilitation theory to binary hard disk systems

08.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

Scientists track chemical and structural evolution of catalytic nanoparticles in 3-D

08.12.2016 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>