Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Testing the water for bioenergy crops

30.08.2011
Many energy researchers and environmental advocates are excited about the prospect of gaining more efficient large-scale biofuel production by using large grasses like miscanthus or switchgrass rather than corn. They have investigated yields, land use, economics and more, but one key factor of agriculture has been overlooked: water.

Bioenergy crops, such as switchgrass (front) and miscanthus (rear), have very dense foliage, thus having a different effect on hydrology than traditional agricultural crops. They transpire more water, thereby reducing both soil moisture and runoff. | Photo by Praveen Kumar “While we are looking for solutions for energy through bioenergy crops, dependence on water gets ignored, and water can be a significant limiting factor,” said Praveen Kumar, the Lovell Professor of civil and environmental engineering at the University of Illinois. “There are many countries around the world that are looking into biofuel energy, but if they are adopting these (large grasses) into their regular policy, then they need to take into account the considerations for the associated demand for water.”

Kumar led a study, published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science Early Edition, detailing effects to the hydrologic cycle of large-scale land conversion, both now and as growing conditions change in the future.

Miscanthus and switchgrass have a very different above-ground foliage structure from corn – more surface area and much denser growth. This is good for maximizing the amount of biomass that an acre of land can produce, but it also increases water use. Miscanthus and switchgrass intercept light and rain differently from corn, and lose more water through transpiration, causing them to pull more water from the soil. The result of large-scale adoption would be a reduction in soil moisture and runoff, but an increase in atmospheric humidity.

“All these together account for the changes in hydrology, just from land-use change,” said Kumar, who also is affiliated with the department of atmospheric sciences. “Then, if you impose further – higher carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, higher temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns – they add further modulation to the water use pattern.”

Kumar’s group used a sophisticated model it developed to study crops’ fine sensitivities to temperature and carbon dioxide changes in the atmosphere. The model incorporates the acclimation response of plants to changing climate.

Using their predictive model, the researchers found that the net water use will increase further as a result of rising temperatures and carbon dioxide. Higher levels of carbon dioxide alone make the plants more water-efficient, since their pores are open less time to absorb carbon dioxide.

However, rising temperatures counteract this effect, as the plants will transpire more while their pores are open, losing more water than they save.

This additional water loss compounds the increase in water usage from land conversion. In the U.S. Midwest, rainfall should remain sufficient to meet water demand, according to Kumar. However, areas that rely on irrigation could find they have less water to meet higher demands, which could increase the net cost of large-scale land conversion and put pressure on already stressed water resources.

“If we’re going to solve energy problems through bioenergy crops, there are collateral issues that need to be considered,” Kumar said. “Water is a significant issue. It’s already a scarce resource across the globe, and the need for it is only going to increase. The cost of that should be factored in to the decision making.”

Graduate student Phong V.V. Le and former postdoctoral researcher Darren Drewry (now at the Max Planck Institute in Germany) were co-authors of the paper.

The National Science Foundation and the Vietnam Education Foundation supported this work.

Liz Ahlberg | University of Illinois
Further information:
http://www.illinois.edu

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Cascading use is also beneficial for wood
11.12.2017 | Technische Universität München

nachricht The future of crop engineering
08.12.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First-of-its-kind chemical oscillator offers new level of molecular control

DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors.

Researchers have created chemical amplifiers and a chemical oscillator using a systematic method that has the potential to embed sophisticated circuit...

Im Focus: Long-lived storage of a photonic qubit for worldwide teleportation

MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...

Im Focus: Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake

Detailed calculations show water cloaks are feasible with today's technology

Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...

Im Focus: Scientists channel graphene to understand filtration and ion transport into cells

Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.

To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...

Im Focus: Towards data storage at the single molecule level

The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.

Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

AKL’18: The opportunities and challenges of digitalization in the laser industry

07.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Engineers program tiny robots to move, think like insects

15.12.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

One in 5 materials chemistry papers may be wrong, study suggests

15.12.2017 | Materials Sciences

New antbird species discovered in Peru by LSU ornithologists

15.12.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>