Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Socialist legacies and incomplete land reforms shaped agricultural land use in Eastern Europe

13.07.2012
The research, which is published in Environmental Research Letters -“Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe”- was lead by IAMO scientist Dr. Alexander V. Prishchepov and co-authored with his colleagues from IAMO, the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the Humboldt University in Berlin.

The project analyses the effects of the change of institutions that should regulate agricultural land use after the collapse of socialism on agricultural land abandonment rates and patterns in Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and European Russia between 1990 and 2000.


Figure 1. Agricultural land abandonment rates between 1990 and 2000 detected with satellite images and aggregated by districts boundaries.
Map: Prishchepov et al. 2012.


Figure 2. Agricultural land abandonment rates ((A): by country; (B): separately for Belarus and Russia by provinces). Prishchepov et al. 2012.

Each of these countries followed a distinct approach towards institutional reform in the postsocialist transition, which was determined by politico-economic considerations, socialist-era land property rights, and the existing agricultural structures. The study demonstrates how the different combinations of institutional changes led to starkly varying agricultural land abandonment rates within similar agro-ecological conditions.

The highest rates of agricultural abandonment were found in regions where institutions that regulated land use had started, but no yet fully completed the reform process by the end of the first decade of transition. The highest rates were found in the Baltic States (43% of agricultural land was abandoned in Latvia and 29% in Lithuania), where land was restituted to historical owners, but land markets were not yet functional and rapid economic developments resulted in a reduced importance of agriculture in relation to other economic sectors.

In Russia, 31% of agricultural land was left unused in the first ten years of post-socialism, due to a 90% reduction in State support for agriculture while the Russian land reform maintained the socialist farming structures and a moratorium on land sales, which was only rescinded in 2003. Inversely, lowest abandonment rates were found in those countries where institutions that regulated land use were strong during the transition.

For instance, Belarus and Poland exhibited the lowest abandonment rates (10% and 16%, respectively), yet for very different reasons. Belarus retained most of its agricultural land under production by preserving the large-scale farming structures of socialist times with high state subsidies for agriculture. Poland experienced comparatively few changes in farm structures in the transitional period, because the agriculture sector during socialism was characterized by a coexistence of many small-scale private farms and few state farms, whose land was sold after socialisms.

Hence, socialist legacies combined with postsocialist government support for agriculture was crucial for abandonment trajectories. The importance of institutional changes and land reform strategies is impressively visible along country boundaries, such as between Belarus and Russia (see figure 1 and 2). Analyzing the patterns and drivers of such differences is vital to better understand how the untapped production potentials on unused agricultural land in the region can be harnessed.

“Institutional changes that regulate land use are not rare”, says Prishchepov. Official statistics suggests that some agricultural fields that were abandoned within the last decade were recultivated in Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, which was likely due to completed land reforms, but also likely due to Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) subsidies. At the same time in Belarus and in the part of Russia that was studied, agricultural land abandonment rates increased, which was likely due to incomplete land reforms. It was found that in Russia more than 50 million hectares of arable land is currently abandoned. “Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union countries hold a great promise for environmental conservation, but also to increase future agricultural production, because large tracts of unused lands coincide with frequent low yield levels”, concludes Prishchepov.

Further information
http://stacks.iop.org/1748-9326/7/024021
Article “Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe” for downloading.

http://www.iamo.de/en
Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe (IAMO).

About IAMO

The Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe (IAMO) is an internationally renowned research institution. With more than 60 scientists and in cooperation with further leading research institutions, it is addressing urgent scientific and social issues in agricultural and food economics in rural areas. Main regions under review include Central and Eastern Europe as well as Central and Eastern Asia. Since its foundation in 1994, IAMO has been part of the Leibniz Association, a German community of independent research institutions.

Academic contact

Dr. Alexander V. Prishchepov
Phone +49 (0)345 2928-326
E-mail prishchepov@iamo.de

Public relations contact

Daniela Schimming
Phone +49 (0)345 2928-330
E-mail presse@iamo.de

Daniela Schimming | idw
Further information:
http://www.iamo.de

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product
02.12.2016 | Purdue University

nachricht New findings about the deformed wing virus, a major factor in honey bee colony mortality
11.11.2016 | Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact, High Frequency DC/DC Converter for Aviation

The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

UTSA study describes new minimally invasive device to treat cancer and other illnesses

02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product

02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>