Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists Battle Herbicide Resistance

10.10.2013
Mississippi State University scientists are leading the charge in the fight against glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass with a research-based plan of attack.

Jason Bond, a weed scientist at the MSU Delta Research and Extension Center in Stoneville, said Mississippi was the first state to discover Italian ryegrass that cannot be controlled with glyphosate, a common herbicide originally known as Round-up, in a crop situation. The weed has spread quickly since it arrived.


(Photo by MSU Delta Research and Extension Center/Jason Bond)

Mississippi State University weed scientists are leading the fight against glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass, such as this growing in a production corn field in Washington County in early spring 2013.

“We have 32 counties that contain glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass,” Bond said. “The state with the next highest amount is Arkansas, and they have eight counties with this problem. We’ve been working on this challenge since 2005, and everyone is looking to Mississippi for recommendations.”

Bond said he and his colleagues with the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station and the MSU Extension Service are very confident about the effectiveness of the research-based program they developed to control glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass. It is based on the use of other types of herbicide applied at specific times.

“Our program requires a minimum of two herbicide applications to even approach complete control,” he said. “Ideally, growers will use fall, winter and spring herbicide applications for total control.”

Bond said growers should make the first herbicide application in fall, from mid-October to mid-November; the second in winter, from mid-January to early February; and the third in spring, around March 1.

“Many of our Delta growers already use post-harvest herbicides in the fall,” he said. “They do a lot of tillage after harvest and don’t want to disturb the fields before they plant, so they put down an herbicide to control winter vegetation. That practice isn’t typical in other states, so some growers hesitate to invest in that application. But to control glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass, they need to put down a residual herbicide to control it before it comes up.”

Bond said growers who do not take steps in the fall to control glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass find it more difficult to control later. He and his colleagues have tested a variety of factors to develop their approach.

“We’ve sprayed around 50 residual herbicides to test their effectiveness, and we’ve found five or six that are active against glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass,” he said. “We haven’t kept track of post-emergence herbicides we’ve tried, but I’d guess easily over 100. Basically, at one time or another, we have sprayed every herbicide with any activity on grass species that is labeled for use in corn, rice, cotton or soybean.”

Once Bond and his colleagues developed their recommendations and collected more data to verify their approach worked, they tackled the research from a yield perspective.

They began with test plots: some were free of ryegrass; some had been treated with two to three herbicide applications; and some were not treated at all and were carpeted with ryegrass.

“We applied different levels of our herbicide program and planted corn, cotton or soybeans,” he said.

Then they monitored the yields from each test plot to see how the invasive weed impacted production.

In 2012, MSU researchers found corn was the most susceptible to yield reduction because of uncontrolled glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass.

“When we controlled glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass in corn, the benefit-to-cost ratio was 13:1,” he said. “For every dollar spent to control glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass, we received a $13 return in corn yield. Even if that was only 2:1, the inputs still paid for themselves.”

Unfortunately for growers, Italian ryegrass is not the only glyphosate-resistant weed they have to manage.

Mississippi has the dubious honor of having more documented glyphosate-resistant weed species than any other state. While new control technologies are on the horizon, for now, growers must battle some type of weed year-round.

Darrin Dodds, cotton specialist with the Mississippi State University Extension Service, said each year more weeds are identified as resistant to herbicides.

“Mississippi has had documented resistance to herbicides as far back as 1989, when common cocklebur was identified as being resistant to a certain class of herbicides,” Dodds said. “But beginning in 2003, the number of weeds resistant to glyphosate began steadily increasing: horseweed in 2003; Italian ryegrass in 2005; Palmer amaranth in 2009; johnsongrass, common waterhemp, and giant ragweed in 2010; and goosegrass and spiny amaranth in 2012.

“Mississippi row crop producers need to be as adaptable as the weeds they fight, because herbicide-resistant weeds are here to stay,” he said.

For herbicide program information, visit http:///msucares.com and click on “Insects-Plant Diseases-Pesticides-Weeds” or download Publication 1532, “2013 Weed Control Guidelines for Mississippi.” Information can also be found at the Mississippi Crop Situation Blog, http://www.mississippi-crops.com.

Keri Collins Lewis | Newswise
Further information:
http://www.mississippi-crops.com

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Climate change, population growth may lead to open ocean aquaculture
05.10.2017 | Oregon State University

nachricht New machine evaluates soybean at harvest for quality
04.10.2017 | University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Terahertz spectroscopy goes nano

20.10.2017 | Information Technology

Strange but true: Turning a material upside down can sometimes make it softer

20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>