For his thesis, Licentiate in Veterinary Medicine Seppo Hyyppä, from MTT Agrifood Research Finland, investigated post-exercise muscle glycogen repletion in horses. Glycogens are the carbohydrate stores in muscle. They are the most important nutrient during exercise. If glycogen stores are depleted the horse makes use of its own muscle protein stores as raw material for energy. This has a detrimental effect on muscle and on muscle performance. Over a longer period the improvement in fitness of the horse may decelerate or even come to a halt.
"If the diet is normal and the horse consumes the feed provided, neither extra carbohydrate nor extra fat will enhance the repletion of muscle glycogen stores. Dietary supplements may actually inhibit repletion", says Hyyppä.
Maintaining horses in a good state of hydration seems to have a moderate positive effect on repletion of muscle glycogen stores. Providing horses with an isotonic glucose-electrolyte rehydration solution soon after exercise helps to overcome dehydration significantly better than providing them with plain water.
Positive anabolic hormonal balance within the body aids the repletion of muscle glycogen stores; the trainer therefore needs to ensure exercise is suitable for the horse, with sufficient recovery time between intense training periods. During the most recent research project a horse was given anabolic steroids to ensure anabolic hormonal balance. This had a clear, positive effect on the repletion of muscle glycogen stores. Hyyppä emphasizes that anabolic steroids were administered solely for the purpose of establishing the significance of hormonal balance.
OBSERVING THE HORSE’S CONDITION
A rigorous training programme, for example, in trotting, may lead to progressive depletion of muscle glycogen stores, to the probable detriment of the horse’s condition in the long run.
Weighing the horse before and after exercise provides a reasonably accurate picture of repletion.
"If scales are unavailable, recording the horse’s chest measurement will indicate changes in weight. Obviously this will not be the case" , Hyyppä points out, "if the horse is already too thin".
Hyyppä stresses that the well-being and condition of the horse may be monitored, in addition to weight measurement, by observing the horse’s general alertness and, for example, suppleness or stiffness when initiating movement. A healthy appetite, too, reveals a good condition. Other good indicators are resting heart rate and body temperature; increases in these measurements are a sign that the training programme is in need of revision.
Hyyppä feels that people must get to know their horses and develop an eye for such changes. "If one person trains a horse and another person looks after it, a wealth of equine information will fall by the wayside", Hyyppä says.
CONTROLLED EXERCISE ON THE TREADMILL
The horses performed the physical tests at the Ypäjä trotting track and on MTT’s equine research treadmill. MTT’s own horses and horses from the Equine College were employed in the research. The treadmill was designed and built through cooperation involving MTT’s Equine Research, the Tampere University of Technology, and local enterprises. The treadmill has achieved notable success as an export product.
"The treadmill is a useful method for exercising horses under controlled conditions. Horses perform exercise by walking, trotting and galloping, from between half-an-hour and an hour-and-a-half at a time ", Hyyppä says.
Analysis of the research was carried out at the MTT laboratory in Ypäjä, and at the University of Helsinki’s Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences.
Licentiate in Veterinary Medicine Seppo Hyyppä’s thesis in Basic Veterinary Sciences, ”Post-exercise Muscle Glycogen Repletion in Horses”, will be examined at the University of Helsinki on 12 November 2007. Professor Birgitta Essen-Gustavsson from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences will act as opponent and Professor Reeta Pösö from the University of Helsinki as custodian.
Ulla Jauhiainen | alfa
New insight into why Pierce's disease is so deadly to grapevines
11.06.2018 | University of California - Davis
Where are Europe’s last primary forests?
29.05.2018 | Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.
Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...
The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.
Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.
An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.
Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...
Light detection and control lies at the heart of many modern device applications, such as smartphone cameras. Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for...
Water molecules exist in two different forms with almost identical physical properties. For the first time, researchers have succeeded in separating the two forms to show that they can exhibit different chemical reactivities. These results were reported by researchers from the University of Basel and their colleagues in Hamburg in the scientific journal Nature Communications.
From a chemical perspective, water is a molecule in which a single oxygen atom is linked to two hydrogen atoms. It is less well known that water exists in two...
13.06.2018 | Event News
08.06.2018 | Event News
05.06.2018 | Event News
15.06.2018 | Materials Sciences
15.06.2018 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation
15.06.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering