MTT Agrifood Research Finland has completed a study to reveal the sensitive agricultural products in the EU due to further tariff reductions in the projected Doha Round. The EU agricultural products are examined by tariff lines at eight digit level. These products are butter, skim milk powder, beef meat, poultry meat, pig meat, white sugar, wheat, barley, and maize. The sensitivity of EU agricultural products to the fluctuation of exchange rates from USD 0.90 per Euro to USD 1.50 per Euro is analysed in conjunction with the different tariff reduction formulas according to the EU proposal, WTO draft proposal, and US proposal for tariff-cuts.
Out of the many proposals submitted to the WTO for the tariff reduction formula, the US proposal is the most extreme and the EU proposal is the most lenient with the G-20 proposal and the WTO draft proposal being in the middle. Naturally, the projected results show that the EU proposal will generate a lower number of sensitive products compared to the WTO draft proposal, and the US proposal will generate the highest number of sensitive products.
POULTRY MEAT IS THE MOST SENSITIVE PRODUCT AND CEREALS ARE THE LEAST SENSITIVE PRODUCTS
The results reveal that poultry meat has the lowest border protection among the examined EU agricultural products, followed by butter. Poultry meat is sensitive to the tariff reduction formula under the WTO draft proposal in almost all the exchange rate scenarios, except when the Euro is very weak (USD 0.90 per Euro). Likewise, butter is sensitive to the tariff reduction formula under the US proposal in almost all the exchange rate scenarios with the exception of a very weak Euro – USD 0.90 per Euro. On the other hand, EU cereals such as wheat, barley, and maize are the most resilient to the erosion of border protection due to further reduction in tariffs in the projected Doha Round, followed by skim milk powder in the EU dairy sector. Border protection for cereals remains intact even after implementing the tariff reduction formulas from all the three proposals. In addition, border protection for cereals is not affected by a variety of exchange rate scenarios. As the second most resilient product, skim milk powder is only sensitive to the tariff reduction formula under the US proposal and when the Euro is very strong – USD 1.50 per Euro. The results also demonstrate that EU agricultural products are very sensitive to the fluctuations of exchange rate. There are no sensitive agricultural products under any of the tariff reduction proposals if the Euro is very weak – USD 0.90 per Euro. On the contrary, a very strong Euro (USD 1.50 per Euro) will create the highest number of sensitive products in the projected Doha Round.
DETAILED ANALYSIS IS IMPORTANT IN IDENTIFYING THE EXACT AMOUNT OF SENSITIVE PRODUCTS
WTO members are entitled to select and designate an appropriate number of sensitive products. Proposals have extended from as little as one percent to as much as fifteen percent of tariff lines. The WTO draft proposal estimated that the number of sensitive products may be between four to eight percent of all agricultural tariff lines. Therefore, the EU may be eligible to designate between 88 to 176 tariff lines as sensitive products. This study has analysed only nine tariff lines out of the 2200 tariff lines for EU agricultural products. The examined EU agricultural products may represent other tariff lines in the same product category, but potential sensitive products at eight digit level have to be analysed individually in order to choose the correct and exact number of sensitive products for the EU.
Source: Ellen Huan-Niemi 2007. Market access under the World Trade Organisation: Identifying sensitive products in the EU. MTT Working Papers 146. 23 pages. http://www.mtt.fi/mtts/pdf/mtts146.pdf
Ulla Jauhiainen | alfa
Cascading use is also beneficial for wood
11.12.2017 | Technische Universität München
The future of crop engineering
08.12.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie
Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.
To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.
Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...
With innovative experiments, researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrums Geesthacht and the Technical University Hamburg unravel why tiny metallic structures are extremely strong
Light-weight and simultaneously strong – porous metallic nanomaterials promise interesting applications as, for instance, for future aeroplanes with enhanced...
An interdisciplinary group of researchers interfaced individual bacteria with a computer to build a hybrid bio-digital circuit - Study published in Nature Communications
Scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have managed to control the behavior of individual bacteria by connecting them to a...
Physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (run jointly by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics) have developed an attosecond electron microscope that allows them to visualize the dispersion of light in time and space, and observe the motions of electrons in atoms.
The most basic of all physical interactions in nature is that between light and matter. This interaction takes place in attosecond times (i.e. billionths of a...
11.12.2017 | Event News
08.12.2017 | Event News
07.12.2017 | Event News
11.12.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
11.12.2017 | Earth Sciences
11.12.2017 | Information Technology