Her dissertation titled: "Innovation Systems and Development: The Journey of a Beleaguered Nile Perch Fishery in Uganda," documents the actions taken by a complex network of local and international organizations, helping to bring about the renewal of the sector. Kiggundu will defend her thesis at Maastricht University on 26 October 2006.
In the late 90s, the the European Union imposed a set of Sanitary and PhytoSanitary (SPS) standards on Uganda’s fish exports. This led to a conditional ban of one of Uganda’s important exports as the country’s fish processing and export industry was unable to meet the new exporting requirements.
Consequently, the industry was plunged into a hard-hitting export crisis and for a prolonged period fish processing firms were locked out of their biggest and most lucrative export market. Export revenues fell at a time when revenues from traditional commodity exports (coffee in particular) were also falling. Fish processing plants were forced to close in order to restructure. Jobs were lost and fishing communities lost their main source of livelihood. In response, Uganda’s fish processing and exporting industry successfully engaged in a complex process of learning and innovation that has resulted in substantial gains for Uganda’s economy.
To analyse how this positive result came about Kiggundu compared 48 firms – meat, fruit, fish byproducts, grain processors and bakeries - with the fish export firms hit by the EU product standards. The results indicate that the availability of new technologies to comply with the EU-standards was not sufficient. It took a concerted effort of government, international development agencies, the industry association, some buyers and local as well as foreign firms to make the change possible.
This battle may have been successfully won, but the war is far from over. “The government of Uganda played a central role and it worked,” says Kiggundu, “...but the government was rather reactive. Government policies were not part of a well coordinated proactive public policy to catch up or move ahead of the technological standards of developed countries. Critical linkages in the system are still lacking and more structural improvements are still needed.”
Kiggundu also found that while financial services in Uganda did improve in the process, they are not yet sufficiently equipped to support innovation needs.
But the study has demonstrated, contrary to the belief of some observers, that the imposition of product standards on developing countries can have some positive effects. “The imposition of standards can be and is sometimes used for the protection of markets, but it can also improve the market, as was the case for Uganda’s fish exporters,” Kiggundu concludes.
Wangu Mwangi | alfa
Kakao in Monokultur verträgt Trockenheit besser als Kakao in Mischsystemen
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Ultrasound sensors make forage harvesters more reliable
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Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
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