Since 1987, CIRAD has been working with the Nigerian administration (in the form of several successive partnerships*), on development-oriented research projects concerning the development of natural forests and the supply of dendroenergy to towns.
Today, more than 600 000 hectares of developed forest are managed sustainably. Over 300 local rural market structures for dendroenergy and syndicates for dum leaf and gum Arabic have been created. The annual revenue generated locally by the commercial production from these markets alone is estimated at nearly 500 million CFA francs. On a technical level, sylvicultural guidelines for the main types of forest formation have now been defined and pastoral management has become an integral part of new development plans.
The supply of dendroenergy, which is vital for town populations, can be insured if forestry resources are managed sustainably. Moreover, the rural populations manage their woody resources, redistributing revenue to the local populations, villages and authorities. In fact, the authorities recognise the local communities as the legitimate interlocutors within a legislative framework which includes a fiscal incentive.
The system for sustainable management still needs to be extended in order to secure the long-term supply of dendroenergy. The administrative forestry control system is lacking and the decentralisation and devolution process should be completed. The institutional framework was modified with a new forestry law. This means that, today, the effective transfer of forestry management skills has been formalised to benefit the territorial bodies and local communities.
In the near future, the establishment of bodies devolved from the rural code (regional and communal forestry commissions), will mean that communities and authorities have access to a valuable tool for controlling and conserving sylvopastoral areas in the form of a land development scheme.
Helen Burford | alfa
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The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
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The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...
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