However, in many cases, the state of peace achieved is very fragile, and conflicts often recur. One common denominator of the situation in these countries is the failure of post-conflict reconstruction to address the issue of land. Land is a primary, fundamental resource that is also highly symbolic for most Africans, and plays a unique role within so-called traditional societies and economies.
The nature of the political regimes in southern Africa is the key to understanding the decision-making processes concerning land issues in these countries. This understanding encompasses the construction of States, notably including the establishment of an electoral democracy, human rights and adhesion to a market economy. Furthermore, over and above the debate on the legitimacy of the post-colonial regimes, the current land crisis highlights the prevailing conflict between the independence of bureaucracy and the demands of heritage opponents on a national and internal level.
The complexity of these issues, which is often overlooked by politicians, was demonstrated at the conference on "The Changing Politics of Land in Africa: Domestic Policies, Crisis Management and Regional Norms", held on 28 and 29 November 2005 in Pretoria, South Africa. It is now necessary to combine a vast range of approaches and methods in order to tackle land issues in Africa. Moreover, while issues traditionally linked to land, such as the lack of land, the monopolization of land resources and ethnic conflicts are still primordial in the current situation, new issues have now arisen: ecological aspects, diverging economic interests, and consideration of minority rights, of the range of existing land ownership regimes and of urban conflicts, but also the advent of new norms, the North-South balance of power, and the rise of anti-imperialism and anti-liberalism.
Land monopolization strategies are sometimes roundly condemned in the field by some groups. However, the political, legal and even civil frameworks within which multilateral agencies operate do not take account of the complexity of these issues. This irrefutable fact casts doubt on the very significance of any conflict prevention or resolution strategy that fails to take account of the underlying causes of those conflicts, making them likely to recur.
Ward Anseeuw | alfa
Light green plants save nitrogen without sacrificing photosynthetic efficiency
21.11.2017 | Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Filling intercropping info gap
16.11.2017 | American Society of Agronomy
The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.11.2017 | Life Sciences