However, in many cases, the state of peace achieved is very fragile, and conflicts often recur. One common denominator of the situation in these countries is the failure of post-conflict reconstruction to address the issue of land. Land is a primary, fundamental resource that is also highly symbolic for most Africans, and plays a unique role within so-called traditional societies and economies.
The nature of the political regimes in southern Africa is the key to understanding the decision-making processes concerning land issues in these countries. This understanding encompasses the construction of States, notably including the establishment of an electoral democracy, human rights and adhesion to a market economy. Furthermore, over and above the debate on the legitimacy of the post-colonial regimes, the current land crisis highlights the prevailing conflict between the independence of bureaucracy and the demands of heritage opponents on a national and internal level.
The complexity of these issues, which is often overlooked by politicians, was demonstrated at the conference on "The Changing Politics of Land in Africa: Domestic Policies, Crisis Management and Regional Norms", held on 28 and 29 November 2005 in Pretoria, South Africa. It is now necessary to combine a vast range of approaches and methods in order to tackle land issues in Africa. Moreover, while issues traditionally linked to land, such as the lack of land, the monopolization of land resources and ethnic conflicts are still primordial in the current situation, new issues have now arisen: ecological aspects, diverging economic interests, and consideration of minority rights, of the range of existing land ownership regimes and of urban conflicts, but also the advent of new norms, the North-South balance of power, and the rise of anti-imperialism and anti-liberalism.
Land monopolization strategies are sometimes roundly condemned in the field by some groups. However, the political, legal and even civil frameworks within which multilateral agencies operate do not take account of the complexity of these issues. This irrefutable fact casts doubt on the very significance of any conflict prevention or resolution strategy that fails to take account of the underlying causes of those conflicts, making them likely to recur.
Ward Anseeuw | alfa
Six-legged livestock -- sustainable food production
11.05.2017 | Faculty of Science - University of Copenhagen
Elephant Herpes: Super-Shedders Endanger Young Animals
04.05.2017 | Universität Zürich
Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....
Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.
The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....
An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...
Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...
24.05.2017 | Event News
23.05.2017 | Event News
22.05.2017 | Event News
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy