Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Wild Grasses and Man-Made Wheats Advance Research Capabilities

04.05.2005


Getting resistance to the latest biotype of greenbug or rust in wheat may require some bridge building.



Dr. Jackie Rudd, associate professor at the Texas A&M University System Agricultural Research and Extension Center and state wheat breeder, is looking at wild grass species and synthetic wheats for possible solutions.

"We’re looking for new unique sources of resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses," Rudd said. "I’m being forced to find broader gene pools to bring in the genetic variability I believe is necessary for the gene pool here."


Karnal bunt, new races of Hessian fly, new leaf rust, stripe rust and Russian wheat aphid, as well as the need for more drought tolerance present challenges, he said. Progress in traditional breeding has been slow due to limited genetic variability for these traits.

Two projects growing in the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station greenhouses in Vernon and Bushland are designed to increase the genetic variability. These projects are being funded by the Texas Wheat Producers Board.

"My preference is to cross wheat with wheat," Rudd said. "The best chance for success is to cross High Plains wheat with High Plains wheat. But to get genetic variability, you cross state lines or even into other countries. The next step would be to cross species, if the desired traits can’t be obtained in a wheat-to-wheat cross."

A wild grass collection being mined for its genetics has 716 lines of wheat relative species. The grasses originated in Turkey and were collected in 1992 as a joint project between Texas A&M University and Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo, (The International Maise and Wheat Improvement Center) better known as CIMMYT.

"This is a gold mine of untapped genetics," Rudd said. "They can be tapped directly through laboratory crosses, but it is difficult."

The researcher must pollinate from a wild species to a hexaploid wheat and then rescue and nurture the developing embryo to get a plant, he said. Hexaploid wheat has three genomes or sets of chromosomes. This is the makeup of the typical bread wheat.

After such a cross, the initial plant will have genetic abnormalities. A series of crosses back to the hexaploid wheat is necessary before the desired trait from the wild species is expressed without any genetic abnormalities.

The second part of Rudd’s research, working with synthetic or man-made hexaploid wheats, provides a more accessible bridge to the wild species, he said.

Most synthetic hexaploid wheats are crosses between Durum (pasta-type) wheat, which has two genomes or sets of chromosomes, and Aegilops Tauchii or goat grass, Rudd said.

The synthetic hexaploid made from this initial cross is generally wild and unuseable, except as a bridge to the wild species, he said.

"Valuable genetics are lost in the direct cross with the wild grass due to genetic abnormalities," Rudd said. "With synthetic hexaploids, the full compliment of wild relative genes is available for selection."

Researchers in Bushland and Vernon are studying synthetic hexaploids already developed through CIMMYT. Crosses between Texas winter wheat and 117 CIMMYT synthetics have already been made and another 1,100 crosses are expected to be made available to U.S. researchers, he said.

"We want to look at them for the forage characteristics they may offer, which have not been evaluated," Rudd said. "They have been shown to have large, strong seed for rapid stand establishment and early growth in the fall."

These synthetic spring wheat varieties must be backcrossed to make them winter wheats, he said. Then they can be looked at for other characteristics.

"If we find something useful in the wild, we may make a synthetic hexaploid from it, or directly cross into wheat," Rudd said.

"Through traditional genetic variability we’ve been able to gain 1 percent a year in grain yield," he said. "Can we double our genetic gain by doubling our variability?"

CIMMYT predicted that within a few years, more than one-half of its advance lines of wheat will trace back to a synthetic wheat. And that’s from a project started less than 20 years ago, in a world where breeders spend up to 15 years trying to get a desired trait in a line of wheat.

Kay Ledbetter | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ag.tamu.edu

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Researchers discover a new link to fight billion-dollar threat to soybean production
14.02.2017 | University of Missouri-Columbia

nachricht Important to maintain a diversity of habitats in the sea
14.02.2017 | University of Gothenburg

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Biocompatible 3-D tracking system has potential to improve robot-assisted surgery

17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering

Real-time MRI analysis powered by supercomputers

17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering

Antibiotic effective against drug-resistant bacteria in pediatric skin infections

17.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>