Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Following Nature’s Lead, Scientists Seek Better Catalysts

25.01.2005


Iron-sulfur nanosystem isolated from bacterium is more reactive than catalysts in use

Those seeking to design more efficient catalysts for the production of hydrogen and the control of air pollutants might do well to take a closer look at how chemistry works in nature, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory say. Their theoretical investigations of a bacterial enzyme reveal a catalytic complex with higher predicted chemical reactivity than that of industrial catalysts currently in use. The results of the team’s theoretical analysis will be published online by the Journal of Physical Chemistry B the week of January 24, 2005.

“We wanted to establish how the biological system works, and then compare it with materials currently used in industry for these chemical processes — and we found that the biological system is indeed better,” said Brookhaven chemist Jose Rodriguez, lead author of the paper. “The challenge now is whether we can reproduce this more efficient system for use in an industrial setting.” Added Brookhaven biochemist Isabel Abreu, the paper’s second author, “We are learning from nature what is working in nature, and then trying to use that for the design of other processes.”



The complex described is a particular configuration of iron and sulfur atoms and the surrounding amino acids in an enzyme isolated from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a bacterium that can live in sulfur-rich environments without oxygen. The specific chemical function of the iron-sulfur complex in this bacterial enzyme is not yet known, but similar complexes of iron and sulfur play an important role in many enzymes, catalysts, and sensors.

Earlier studies by Abreu and coworkers suggested that, unlike iron-sulfur complexes found in other proteins, which are usually bound to four surrounding cysteine amino acids, the iron-sulfur complex from D. desulfuricans appeared to have only three bound cysteine neighbors. “This opened up the possibility of interesting chemical properties,” Abreu said.

Rodriguez and Abreu’s first step was to use “density functional calculations” to establish if a structural model previously proposed by Abreu for the three-cysteine configuration was theoretically stable enough to exist in nature, and then to investigate how that structure might influence the reactivity of the iron-sulfur complex. In agreement with the predicted model, they found that the three-cysteine structure was indeed stable, leaving the iron-sulfur complex, located in a surface pocket of the bacterial enzyme, exposed on one side.
Next, the scientists tested the theoretical chemical reactivity of the complex with a variety of reactants important in either the production of hydrogen or the control of air pollution. Finally, they compared those results with the reactivity of other iron-sulfur-complex catalysts, including those that are currently used for these catalytic processes in industry.

“Our calculations predict that this particular unit should be four to five times more reactive than the catalysts currently used, which is very significant,” Rodriguez said. “With this structure, the key is that you have an open side of the molecule to bind things and do chemistry because it is missing one cysteine neighbor — you can make it react with other things.”

The next challenge will be to see if the scientists can use the enzyme or synthesize a mimic of its cysteine-iron-sulfur center — an engineering project on the nanoscale (i.e., measured in billionths of a meter). “Even if we can’t use this exact enzyme, then maybe we could create other molecules or particles with this type of structure using synthetic methods,” Abreu said.

This type of work — synthesizing, studying, and fine-tuning the properties of nanoscale catalytic systems — will be a major research focus at Brookhaven Lab’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), construction of which is scheduled to begin this year. “Once you have the nanoparticles, you can do the testing with the catalytic reactions,” Rodriguez says. “Then, if they work the way the theory predicts, then you have something that is really useful.”

The research was funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences within the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science. The CFN at Brookhaven Lab is one of five nanoscience research centers being constructed and funded by DOE’s Office of Science.

Karen McNulty Walsh | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.bnl.gov

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Six-legged livestock -- sustainable food production
11.05.2017 | Faculty of Science - University of Copenhagen

nachricht Elephant Herpes: Super-Shedders Endanger Young Animals
04.05.2017 | Universität Zürich

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

Im Focus: Using graphene to create quantum bits

In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bits -- or qubits -- that are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. This normally needs highly nonlinear non-dissipative elements capable of functioning at very low temperatures.

In pursuit of this goal, researchers at EPFL's Laboratory of Photonics and Quantum Measurements LPQM (STI/SB), have investigated a nonlinear graphene-based...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Physicists discover mechanism behind granular capillary effect

24.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Measured for the first time: Direction of light waves changed by quantum effect

24.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>