The process of clearing consists of cutting down trees in such a way that those remaining have more resources and can grow more. The question was if too many had been cut down, with the concomitant removal of nutrients, and the manner, therefore, in which this process might affect long-term soil fertility.
A PhD thesis presented in the Public University of Navarre specifically analysed the internal cycle of nutrients in two wooded areas in Pinus sylvestris forests, this species, together with the beech, being the most common tree in the Navarre mountains, especially in the Pyrenees. The areas chosen were in Aspurz and Garde, locations situated at different altitudes.
In the first stage, the above-ground biomass of the wood was measured before and after the clearing is carried out, i.e. we analysed the amount of wood, leaves and bark and each one of the nutrients (such as nitrogen and phosphorous) that existed in the wood. Then the biomass of the dry leaves, branches, etc. of the trees in question fallen onto the floor is measured in order to assess what nutrients returned naturally from the trees to the soil and which, therefore, would be natural fertiliser. The results concluded that the clearings reduced both the above-ground biomass as well as the mineral mass, although no differences in this drop were registered between different intensities of clearings.
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In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
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The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
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